Weight Gain in Infancy and Vascular Risk Factors in Later Childhood.

Weight Gain in Infancy and Vascular Risk Factors in Later Childhood.

Pediatrics. 2013 May 27;
Skilton MR, Marks GB, Ayer JG, Garden FL, Garnett SP, Harmer JA, Leeder SR, Toelle BG, Webb K, Baur LA, Celermajer DS

OBJECTIVE:We hypothesized that early weight gain would be associated with incident obesity, higher blood pressure, systemic inflammation, and arterial wall thickening in later childhood.METHODS:A longitudinal birth cohort was recruited antenatally from 2 maternity hospitals in Sydney, Australia, between September 1997 and December 1999. Three hundred ninety-five nondiabetic children who were followed to age 8 years had complete data for early weight gain and arterial wall thickness.RESULTS:Independent predictors of excess early weight gain (age 0-18 months; adjusted for height gain) included male gender (0.411 kg [SE: 0.103], P < .001), fewer weeks' gestation (-0.121 kg [SE: 0.044] per week, P = .006), birth length (0.156 kg [SE: 0.024] per cm, P < .001), and failure to breastfeed to 6 months of age (0.498 kg [SE: 0.108], P < .001). Early height-adjusted weight gain was significantly associated with later childhood overweight (odds ratio [OR]: 1.67 [95% confidence interval (CI): 1.26 to 2.20] per kg) and obesity (OR: 2.07 [95% CI: 1.53 to 2.79] per kg), excess central adiposity (OR: 1.54 [95% CI: 1.20 to 1.98] per kg), higher systolic blood pressure (1.24 mm?Hg [SE: 0.33] per kg, P < .001), higher C-reactive protein (0.17 mg/dL [SE: 0.06] per 100% increase in weight gain, P = .006), and greater carotid intima-media thickness (0.012 mm [SE: 0.004] per kg, P = .002).CONCLUSIONS:Early postnatal weight gain from birth to age 18 months is significantly associated with later childhood overweight and obesity, excess central adiposity, and greater arterial wall thickness. HubMed – eating


Parental obesity moderates the relationship between childhood appetitive traits and weight.

Obesity (Silver Spring). 2013 Apr; 21(4): 815-823
Fuemmeler BF, Lovelady CA, Zucker NL, Ostbye T

OBJECTIVE: In this study, the independent and combined associations between childhood appetitive traits and parental obesity on weight gain from 0 to 24 months and body mass index (BMI) z-score at 24 months in a diverse community-based sample of dual parent families (n = 213) were examined. DESIGN AND METHODS: Participants were mothers who had recently completed a randomized trial of weight loss for overweight/obese postpartum women. As measures of childhood appetitive traits, mothers completed subscales of the Children’s Eating Behavior Questionnaire, including Desire to Drink (DD), Enjoyment of Food (EF), and Satiety Responsiveness (SR), and a 24-h dietary recall for their child. Heights and weights were measured for all children and mothers and self-reported for mothers’ partners. The relationship between children’s appetitive traits and parental obesity on toddler weight gain and BMI z-score were evaluated using multivariate linear regression models, controlling for a number of potential confounders. RESULTS: Having two obese parents was related to greater weight gain from birth to 24 months independent of childhood appetitive traits, and although significant associations were found between appetitive traits (DD and SR) and child BMI z-score at 24 months, these associations were observed only among children who had two obese parents. When both parents were obese, increasing DD and decreasing SR were associated with a higher BMI z-score. CONCLUSIONS: The results highlight the importance of considering familial risk factors when examining the relationship between childhood appetitive traits on childhood obesity. HubMed – eating


Are Family Meals as Good for Youth as We Think They Are? A Review of the Literature on Family Meals as They Pertain to Adolescent Risk Prevention.

J Youth Adolesc. 2013 May 28;
Skeer MR, Ballard EL

Regular family meals have been shown to reduce adolescents’ engagement in various risk behaviors. In this article, we comprehensively examine the literature to review the association between family meals and eight adolescent risk outcomes: alcohol, tobacco, marijuana and other drugs; aggressive and/or violent behaviors; poor school performance; sexual behavior; mental health problems; and disordered eating patterns. The majority of the studies reviewed found associations in the relationship between family meals and adolescents’ risk profiles. More specifically, studies reporting significant associations found that adolescents who frequently ate meals with their family and/or parents were less likely to engage in risk behaviors when compared to peers who never or rarely ate meals with their families. Additionally, the influence of family meal frequency on youth risk outcomes appears to be dependent on gender, with family meals being a protective factor for females and males differently, depending on the outcome examined. However, the studies available about family meals and adolescent risk only examined the effect of family meal frequency, and not other components of family meals that contribute to the protective effect, and, thus, hinder the understanding of the mechanisms unique to family meals’ protective characteristics. Regardless of these limitations, the studies examined indicate that family meals may be protective and, therefore, have practical implications for parents, clinicians, and organizations looking to reduce adolescent risk behaviors. However, further examination is needed to better understand the mechanisms that contribute to the protective effect afforded by family meal frequency on adolescents. HubMed – eating


A Screening Tool to Assess and Manage Behavioral Risk in the Postoperative Bariatric Surgery Patient: The WATCH.

J Clin Psychol Med Settings. 2013 May 28;
Coughlin JW, Guarda AS, Clark JM, Furtado MM, Steele KE, Heinberg LJ

Bariatric surgery is increasingly recognized as a highly effective treatment for individuals who are severely obese. Amount of weight loss and resolution of comorbidities surpass those of nonsurgical approaches; however, suboptimal weight loss and weight regain are not uncommon. These outcomes, though not fully understood, are likely at least partially explained by failure to make long-term behavioral and/or cognitive changes. We are unaware of any established clinical tools to guide providers in assessing postoperative behaviors and identifying those who may require specialized treatment. The goal of this paper is to introduce a brief screening tool, The WATCH, to help clinicians assess and identify patients who may be at risk for poor or untoward outcomes post bariatric surgery. We first review the literature on postoperative outcomes, including weight loss, resolution of comorbidities, suboptimal outcomes, and development of problematic eating behaviors. We then provide an easily-recalled, five-item tool that assesses outcomes, and discuss patient responses that may necessitate further intervention or referral. HubMed – eating