Weak Affinity Chromatography for Evaluation of Stereoisomers in Early Drug Discovery.

Weak Affinity Chromatography for Evaluation of Stereoisomers in Early Drug Discovery.

J Biomol Screen. 2013 Mar 11;
Duong-Thi MD, Bergström M, Fex T, Svensson S, Ohlson S, Isaksson R

In early drug discovery (e.g., in fragment screening), recognition of stereoisomeric structures is valuable and guides medicinal chemists to focus only on useful configurations. In this work, we concurrently screened mixtures of stereoisomers and estimated their affinities to a protein target (thrombin) using weak affinity chromatography-mass spectrometry (WAC-MS). Affinity determinations by WAC showed that minor changes in stereoisomeric configuration could have a major impact on affinity. The ability of WAC-MS to provide instant information about stereoselectivity and binding affinities directly from analyte mixtures is a great advantage in fragment library screening and drug lead development. HubMed – drug


Biosensor-Expressing Spheroid Cultures for Imaging of Drug-Induced Effects in Three Dimensions.

J Biomol Screen. 2013 Mar 11;
Wittig R, Richter V, Wittig-Blaich S, Weber P, Strauss WS, Bruns T, Dick TP, Schneckenburger H

In the past, the majority of antitumor compound-screening approaches had been performed in two-dimensional (2D) cell cultures. Although easy to standardize, this method provides results of limited significance because cells are surrounded by an artificial microenvironment, are not exposed to hypoxia gradients, and lack cell-cell contacts. These nonphysiological conditions directly affect relevant parameters such as the resistance to anticancer drugs. Multicellular tumor spheroids more closely resemble the in vivo situation in avascularized tumors. To monitor cellular reactions within this three-dimensional model system, we stably transfected a spheroid-forming glioblastoma cell line with Grx1-roGFP2, a green fluorescent protein (GFP)-based glutathione-specific redox sensor that detects alterations in the glutathione redox potential. Functionality and temporal dynamics of the sensor were verified with redox-active substances in 2D cell culture. Based on structured illumination microscopy using nonphototoxic light doses, ratio imaging was then applied to monitor the response of the glutathione system to exogenous hydrogen peroxide in optical sections of a tumor spheroid. Our approach provides a proof of concept for biosensor-based imaging in 3D cell cultures. HubMed – drug


The Variability of oxLDL-induced Cytotoxicity on Different Types of Cell Lines.

Cell Biochem Biophys. 2013 Mar 12;
Li H, Li XX, Ma Q, Cui J

The epidemiologic studies indicated an association of obesity with increased incidence of colorectal, breast and ovarian cancer. Further studies found a positive correlation between increased serum oxLDL and an increased risk of the three cancers. In contrast, our previous studies found a negative correlation between the serum oxLDL levels and the risk of leukemia and esophageal cancer. Identification of the variability of cytotoxicity of oxLDL-induced on different types of cell lines is important for understanding the mechanism of oxLDL involved in the tumorigenesis. In the present study, we investigated the effective impacts of oxLDL on the proliferation and apoptosis for the human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) and two cancer cell lines (EC-9706 and K562/AO2 with multi-drug resistance). HUVEC, K562/AO2 and EC-9706 cell lines were cultured in the presence of oxLDL, and cell proliferation was tested by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay, apoptosis and cell cycle by flow cytometer, mRNA expression by RT-PCR and protein expression by Western blot. OxLDL could inhibit proliferation and apoptosis of the three cell lines; however, there were significant differences of effective action on the viability and apoptosis. The dose of oxLDL-induced cytotoxicity on HUVEC was higher than that on the two tumor cells. The antibody of lectin-like oxLDL receptor-1 (LOX-1-ab) can block oxLDL-induced cytotoxicity. Cells apoptosis is mediated by reducing Bcl-2 and increasing Bax and caspase-3 mRNA and protein expression. This study showed the dose of oxLDL-induced cytotoxicity on HUVEC was higher than that on K562/AO2 and EC-9706 tumor cells. The antibody of LOX-1 receptor can block the oxLDL-induced cytotoxicity. HubMed – drug


Quantitative Evaluation of Ultrasound-Mediated Cellular Uptake of a Fluorescent Model Drug.

Mol Imaging Biol. 2013 Mar 12;
Lepetit-Coiffé M, Yudina A, Poujol C, de Oliveira PL, Couillaud F, Moonen CT

PURPOSE: This study aims to quantitatively analyze cellular uptake following local ultrasound (US)-mediated cell permeabilization. PROCEDURES: A 2 ?M cell-impermeable dye Sytox Green was co-injected with 3?×?107 microbubbles in the presence of C6 rat glioblastoma cell monolayer in total volume of 10 ml. A 5.8-mm diameter mono-element US transducer was positioned at a distance of 8 mm to the Opticell® membrane. Acoustical pressure of pulsed US was varied from 0.62 MPa peak-to-peak (p-p) to 1.25 MPa p-p. Large field of view (FOV?=?15?×?15 mm) 22?×?22 mosaic acquisitions were done under epifluorescence Leica DMR microscope and analyzed in Metamorph software to evaluate cell density as well as model drug uptake percentage. RESULTS: The size of acoustical field of the transducer closely matches the spatial pattern of the model drug internalized into the cells by US. Maximum of uptake percentage (42?±?15 %) was found at 0.88 MPa p-p. CONCLUSIONS: Spatial aspect of US-mediated model drug uptake has been quantitatively evaluated on adherent cells using robust 2D-mapping approach. HubMed – drug


Effect of Selenium and Vitamin C on Clinical Outcomes, Trace Element Status, and Antioxidant Enzyme Activity in Horses with Acute and Chronic Lower Airway Disease. A Randomized Clinical Trial.

Biol Trace Elem Res. 2013 Mar 13;
Youssef MA, El-Khodery SA, Ibrahim HM

Excess production of reactive oxygen species is involved in the pathogenesis of airway disorders in horses. Trace element antioxidants have a beneficial role in oxidant/antioxidant balance. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of a combination of sodium selenite and ascorbic acid on clinical outcome, antioxidant enzymes, and trace elements status in horses with lower airway disease. For this purpose, 40 draft horses with lower airway disease were randomly selected (acute, n?=?20; chronic, n?=?20). Both acute and chronic cases were randomly allocated into two subgroups (ten each). Groups 1 and 2 were the horses with acute disease, while groups 3 and 4 were chronically ill. For all groups, each horse was administered antibiotic, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory, and mucolytic drug. In addition, groups 2 and 4 were injected with 15 mg/kg sodium selenite and 30 mg/kg ascorbic acid every 24 h for successive 4 weeks. Venous blood samples were obtained from diseased horses on three occasions; at first examination, and at 2 and 4 weeks post-treatment. Clinically, antioxidant supplementation improved the clinical signs with significant decrease (p?HubMed – drug



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