Validation of Two Screening Instruments for PTSD in Dutch Substance Use Disorder Inpatients.

Validation of two screening instruments for PTSD in Dutch substance use disorder inpatients.

Filed under: Addiction Rehab

Addict Behav. 2012 Oct 31; 38(3): 1726-1731
Kok T, de Haan HA, van der Velden HJ, van der Meer M, Najavits LM, de Jong CA

Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is highly prevalent in substance use disorder (SUD) populations. Because resources for extensive and thorough diagnostic assessment are often limited, reliable screening instruments for PTSD are needed. The aim of the current study was to test two short PTSD measures for diagnostic efficiency in predicting PTSD compared to the Clinician-Administered PTSD Scale (CAPS). The sample consisted of 197 SUD patients receiving residential substance use treatment who completed questionnaires regarding substance use and trauma-related symptoms, all abstinent from substance for 4weeks. The PTSD section of the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview plus (MINIplus) and the Self-Report Inventory for PTSD (SRIP) are compared to the CAPS. Results showed low sensitivity (.58) and high specificity (.91) for the PTSD section of the MINIplus. The SRIP showed high sensitivity (.80) and moderately high specificity (.73) at a cut-off score of 48. The prevalence of PTSD as measured with the CAPS was 25.4% current and 46.2% lifetime. Results indicate that the MINIplus, a short clinical interview, has insufficient quality as a screener for PTSD. The SRIP, however, is a reliable instrument in detecting PTSD in a SUD inpatient population in The Netherlands. Screening for PTSD is time efficient and increases detection of PTSD in SUD treatment settings.
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Hierarchical personality traits and the distinction between unipolar and bipolar disorders.

Filed under: Addiction Rehab

J Affect Disord. 2012 Dec 19;
Quilty LC, Pelletier M, Deyoung CG, Michael Bagby R

BACKGROUND: The association between personality and psychopathology can provide an insight into the structure of mental disorders and the shared etiology and pathophysiology underlying diagnoses with overlapping symptomatology. The majority of personality-psychopathology research pertinent to the mood disorders has focused upon traits at the higher-order levels of the personality hierarchy, rather than those at intermediate or lower levels. The purpose of the current investigation was to investigate whether unipolar and bipolar mood disorders, and the severity of depressive and manic symptoms, show differential associations with traits at multiple levels of the personality hierarchy. METHODS: Participants (N=275; 63% women; mean age 42.95 years) with depressive disorders (n=139) and bipolar disorders (n=136), as assessed by the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV, Axis I Disorders, Patient Version (SCID-I/P; First et al., 1995), completed the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale, Young Mania Scale, Revised NEO Personality Inventory and Big Five Aspect Scales. RESULTS: Results support the hypothesis that lower levels of the personality hierarchy provide additional differentiation of affective pathology. As compared to the widespread association of depressive symptoms with traits across the personality hierarchy, manic symptoms demonstrated more specific associations with traits at lower levels of the personality hierarchy. LIMITATIONS: Patients with severe mania were excluded, thus the full range of mania is not represented in the current sample. CONCLUSIONS: These results support the use of lower-order personality traits to discriminate between unipolar versus bipolar mood disorder, and are consistent with changes proposed to the psychiatric nosology to increase diagnostic precision.
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Risky messages in alcohol advertising, 2003-2007: results from content analysis.

Filed under: Addiction Rehab

J Adolesc Health. 2013 Jan; 52(1): 116-21
Rhoades E, Jernigan DH

To assess the content of alcohol advertising in youth-oriented U.S. magazines, with specific attention to subject matter pertaining to risk and sexual connotations and to youth exposure to these ads.This study consisted of a content analysis of a census of 1,261 unique alcohol advertisements (“creatives”) recurring 2,638 times (“occurrences”) in 11 U.S. magazines with disproportionately youthful readerships between 2003 and 2007. Advertisements were assessed for content relevant to injury, overconsumption, addiction, and violations of industry guidelines (termed “risk” codes), as well as for sexism and sexual activity.During the 5-year study period, more than one-quarter of occurrences contained content pertaining to risk, sexism, or sexual activity. Problematic content was concentrated in a minority of brands, mainly beer and spirits brands. Those brands with higher youth-to-adult viewership ratios were significantly more likely to have a higher percentage of occurrences with addiction content and violations of industry guidelines. Ads with violations of industry guidelines were more likely to be found in magazines with higher youth readerships.The prevalence of problematic content in magazine alcohol advertisements is concentrated in advertising for beer and spirits brands, and violations of industry guidelines and addiction content appear to increase with the size of youth readerships, suggesting that individuals aged <21 years may be more likely to see such problematic content than adults. HubMed – addiction


NF-kappaB addiction and resistance to 5-fluorouracil in a multi-stage colon carcinoma model.

Filed under: Addiction Rehab

Int J Clin Pharmacol Ther. 2013 Jan; 51(1): 35-37
Körber MI, Klingenbrunner S, Bartsch R, Steger GG, Mader RM

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A case of cola dependency in a woman with recurrent depression.

Filed under: Addiction Rehab

BMC Res Notes. 2012 Dec 21; 5(1): 692
Kromann CB, Nielsen CT

ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Cola is an extremely popular caffeinated soft drink. The media have recently cited a poll in which 16% of the respondents considered themselves to be addicted to cola soft drinks. We find the contrast between the apparent prevalence of cola addiction and the lack of scientific literature on the subject remarkable. To our knowledge, this is the first case of cola dependency described in the scientific literature. CASE PRESENTATION: The patient is a 40-year-old woman, who when feeling down used cola to give her an energy boost and feel better about herself. During the past seven years her symptoms increased, and she was prescribed antidepressant medication by her family doctor. Due to worsening of symptoms she was hospitalised and later referred to a specialised outpatient clinic for affective disorders. At entry to the clinic she suffered from constant tiredness, lack of energy, failing concentration, problems falling asleep as well as interrupted sleep. She drank about three litres of cola daily, and she had developed a metabolic syndrome.The patient fulfilled the ICD-10 criteria for dependency, and on the Yale Food Addiction Scale (YFAS) she scored 40 points. Her clinical mental status was at baseline assessed by the Major Depression Inventory (MDI) = 41, Hamilton Depression – 17 item Scale (HAMD-17) = 14, Young Mania Rating Scale (YMRS) = 2 and the Global Assessment of Functioning (GAF) Scale = 45.During cognitive therapy sessions she was guided to stop drinking cola and was able to moderate her use to an average daily consumption of 200 ml of cola Her concentration improved and she felt mentally and physically better. At discharge one year after entry her YFAS was zero. She was mentally stable (MDI =1, HAMD-17 = 0, YMRS = 0 and GAF = 85) and without antidepressant medication. She had lost 7.2 kg, her waistline was reduced by 13 cm and the metabolic syndrome disappeared. CONCLUSION: This case serves as an example of how the overconsumption of a caffeinated soft drink likely was causing or accentuating the patient’s symptoms of mental disorder. When diagnosing and treating depression, health professionals should pay attention to potential overuse of cola or other caffeinated beverages.
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