Validation of the Brazilian Version of the Apathy Inventory.

Validation of the Brazilian version of the Apathy Inventory.

Filed under: Depression Treatment

Int J Geriatr Psychiatry. 2013 Jan 7;
Stella F, de Andrade LP, Garuffi M, Vital TM, Hernández SS, Ruocco M, Sé EV, Klein M, Martins T, Robert PH

BACKGROUND: Apathy is a frequent neuropsychiatric condition in neurodegenerative disorders, depression, and often in mild cognitive impairment. The Apathy Inventory (AI) is a reliable instrument for improving the accuracy of the apathy diagnosis. The aim was to establish the validity of the Apathy Inventory for the Brazilian community. METHODS: We established the concurrent validity, internal consistency, inter-rater reliability, and the sensitivity and specificity of AI for the Brazilian community in a cohort of 175 individuals with Alzheimer’s disease, Parkinson’s disease, depression, mild cognitive impairment, and healthy controls. The three dimensions of the AI (emotional blunting, lack of initiative, and lack of interest) were compared with the Apathy domain of the Neuropsychiatric Inventory-Clinician rating scale (NPI-C) in an independent scheme. RESULTS: The analyses demonstrated high correlation coefficients in AI’s individual dimensions and in AI-total score (F?=?0.965). Concerning the NPI-C/Apathy domain, intra-class correlation coefficients were also high (F?=?0.977). Concurrent validity was high according to both raters on AI dimensions × NPI-C/Apathy domain and regarding total score (rater 1: rho?=?0.956 vs. rater 2: rho?=?0.970). The internal consistency of the AI was also high concerning the AI’s individual dimensions and total score (rater 1: 0.945 vs. rater 2: 0.958). CONCLUSION: We observed high internal consistency, high concurrent validity, and inter-rater reliability of the Apathy Inventory. In addition, we found that its sensitivity and specificity were high. We suggest that the Brazilian version of the Apathy Inventory would be an appropriate instrument to identify the apathy syndrome in Brazilian patients. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
HubMed – depression


Influence of cattle genotype (Bos indicus versus Bos taurus) on oocyte and preimplantation embryo resistance to elevated temperature.

Filed under: Depression Treatment

J Anim Sci. 2013 Jan 7;
Paula-Lopes FF, Lima RS, Satrapa RA, Barros CM

High environmental temperatures during the hot months of the year reduce reproductive performance in cattle. Summer heat stress depression in fertility is a multifactorial problem; however, there is evidence that the bovine germinal vesicle and maturing oocyte, as well as the early embryo are major targets of the deleterious effects of heat stress. Such adverse effects are less pronounced in heat-tolerant breeds (Bos indicus) than in heat-sensitive breeds (Bos taurus). This genetic variation results from the greater thermoregulatory ability and cellular thermoresistance of heat-tolerant breeds. Heat-induced oocyte cellular damage occurs in both cytoplasmic and nuclear compartments. Heat shock has been shown to reduce oocyte nuclear maturation, induce apoptosis, compromise oocyte cytoskeleton, and impair mitochondria function and developmental competence. However, the oocyte cytoplasm is more susceptible to heat shock than the nucleus. This effect is greater for Bos taurus than Bos indicus oocytes. The detrimental effects of heat shock are also critical during the first cleavage divisions when most of the embryonic genome is inactive, however, the bovine embryo becomes more resistant to elevated temperature as it proceeds through development. Several studies demonstrated that Bos indicus embryos are more thermotolerant than Bos taurus embryos. Adaptive changes involved in acquisition of thermotolerance are likely derived from changes in gene expression and(or) activity of biochemical molecules that control cellular functions against stress. Recently, molecules such as IGF-I and caspase inhibitor z-DEVD-fmk have been shown to exert a thermoprotective role rescuing heat-induced oocyte and embryo cellular damage and developmental competence. Therefore, cattle genotype and thermoprotective molecules can be considered as an alternative to modulate the effects of elevated temperature in reproductive function.
HubMed – depression


The psychiatric comorbidities of cluster headache.

Filed under: Depression Treatment

Curr Pain Headache Rep. 2013 Feb; 17(2): 313
Robbins MS

Although the comorbidity of migraine has been extensively studied, the relationships between cluster headache and psychiatric disease have not been well-addressed. In this review the available literature concerning cluster headache and depression, anxiety, bipolar disorder, aggression, suicide, and their implications are discussed. Potential mechanisms, confounding variables, and unanswered questions are also addressed.
HubMed – depression


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