Update on Extended Release Quetiapine Fumarate in Schizophrenia and Bipolar Disorders.

Update on extended release quetiapine fumarate in schizophrenia and bipolar disorders.

Filed under: Depression Treatment

Neuropsychiatr Dis Treat. 2012; 8: 523-536
El-Khalili N

The atypical antipsychotic quetiapine fumarate is available both as an immediate release (IR) and as an extended release (XR) formulation allowing flexibility of dosing for individual patients. Approved uses of quetiapine XR include the treatment of schizophrenia (including maintenance therapy for prevention of relapse), the treatment of bipolar disorder (manic and depressive episodes), and the prevention of recurrence in patients with bipolar disorder who respond to quetiapine XR. This narrative review provides an update on quetiapine XR in these indications. The pharmacological profile of quetiapine, including a moderate affinity for dopamine D(2) receptors and higher affinity for serotonin 5-hydroxytryptophan (5-HT)(2A) receptors, may explain its broad efficacy and low propensity for extrapyramidal symptoms (EPS). The XR formulation has similar bioavailability but prolonged plasma levels compared with the IR formulation, allowing for less frequent (once-daily) dosing. Clinical studies have confirmed the efficacy of quetiapine XR in relieving the acute symptoms of schizophrenia during short-term trials, and reducing the risk for relapse in long-term studies. Direct switching from the IR formulation to the same dose of the XR formulation did not reveal any loss of efficacy or tolerability issues, and switching patients to quetiapine XR from conventional or other atypical antipsychotics (for reasons of insufficient efficacy or tolerability) also proved to be beneficial and generally well tolerated. In bipolar disorder, quetiapine XR has also proven effective in relieving acute depressive and manic symptoms. Adverse events with quetiapine XR in patients with either schizophrenia or bipolar disorder are similar to those associated with the IR formulation, the most common being sedation, dry mouth, somnolence, dizziness, and headache. The low propensity for EPS is maintained with the XR formulation. Overall, evidence from clinical trials suggests that quetiapine XR is an effective and generally well-tolerated treatment option in patients with schizophrenia and bipolar disorder.
HubMed – depression

 

COMPLIANCE, OPPOSITION, AND BEHAVIOR PROBLEMS IN TODDLERS BORN PRETERM OR LOW BIRTHWEIGHT.

Filed under: Depression Treatment

Infant Ment Health J. 2012 1; 33(1): 34-44
Poehlmann J, Schwichtenberg AM, Hahn E, Miller K, Dilworth-Bart J, Kaplan D, Maleck S

Although children born preterm or low birth weight (PT LBW) are more likely to exhibit behavior problems compared to children born at term, developmental and family processes associated with these problems are unclear. We examined trajectories of maternal depressive symptoms in relation to toddler compliance and behavior problems in families with PT LBW infants. A total of 177 infants (93 boys, 84 girls) and their mothers enrolled in the study during the infant’s NICU stay. Data were collected at five time points across 2 years. Assessments of maternal depressive symptoms were conducted at all time points, and toddler compliance and opposition to maternal requests and behavior problems were assessed at 2 years. Toddlers born earlier with more health problems to mothers whose depressive symptoms increased over time exhibited the most opposition to maternal requests during a cleanup task at 24 months, consistent with multiple risk models. Mothers with elevated depression symptoms reported more behavior problems in their toddlers. The study has implications for family-based early intervention programs seeking to identify PT LBW infants at highest risk for problem behaviors.
HubMed – depression

 

Physiological Evidence Consistent with Reduced Neuroplasticity in Human Adolescents Born Preterm.

Filed under: Depression Treatment

J Neurosci. 2012 Nov 14; 32(46): 16410-16416
Pitcher JB, Riley AM, Doeltgen SH, Kurylowicz L, Rothwell JC, McAllister SM, Smith AE, Clow A, Kennaway DJ, Ridding MC

Preterm-born children commonly experience motor, cognitive, and learning difficulties that may be accompanied by altered brain microstructure, connectivity, and neurochemistry. However, the mechanisms linking the altered neurophysiology with the behavioral outcomes are unknown. Here we provide the first physiological evidence that human adolescents born preterm at or before 37 weeks of completed gestation have a significantly reduced capacity for cortical neuroplasticity, the key overall mechanism underlying learning and memory. We examined motor cortex neuroplasticity in three groups of adolescents who were born after gestations of ?32 completed weeks (early preterm), 33-37 weeks (late preterm), and 38-41 weeks (term) using a noninvasive transcranial magnetic brain stimulation technique to induce long-term depression (LTD)-like neuroplasticity. Compared with term-born adolescents, both early and late preterm adolescents had reduced LTD-like neuroplasticity in response to brain stimulation that was also associated with low salivary cortisol levels. We also compared neuroplasticity in term-born adolescents with that in term-born young adults, finding that the motor cortex retains a relatively enhanced neuroplastic capacity in adolescence. These findings provide a possible mechanistic link between the altered brain physiology of preterm birth and the subsequent associated behavioral deficits, particularly in learning and memory. They also suggest that altered hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis function due to preterm birth may be a significant modulator of this altered neuroplasticity. This latter finding may offer options in the development of possible therapeutic interventions.
HubMed – depression

 

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