Unpredictable Feeding Impairs Glucose Tolerance in Growing Lambs.

Unpredictable feeding impairs glucose tolerance in growing lambs.

PLoS One. 2013; 8(4): e61040
Jaquiery AL, Oliver MH, Landon-Lane N, Matthews SJ, Harding JE, Bloomfield FH

Irregular eating is associated with insulin resistance and metabolic disease in adults but may affect young, growing children differently. We investigated the metabolic effects of unpredictable feeding in female juvenile lambs randomly assigned to receive, for six weeks, maintenance feed given twice daily in equal portions (Control Group, C; n?=?24) or the same weekly feed amount in aliquots of variable size at unpredictable times (Unpredictable Group, U; n?=?21). Intravenous glucose tolerance tests (IVGTT), insulin tolerance tests (ITT), and measurement of diurnal plasma cortisol concentrations were performed pre and post the dietary intervention. Groups were compared using t test and RM ANOVA. Weight gain was similar in both groups (C 18±2%; U 16±2% of initial body weight). Glucose area under the curve (AUC) was unchanged in C (AUC pre 818±34, post 801±33 mmol.min.l(-1)), but increased by 20% in U (pre 830±25, post 1010±19 mmol.min.l(-1); p<0.0001), with an inadequate insulin response to glucose load (log(AUC insulin first 40 minutes) post intervention C 1.49±0.04 vs U 1.36±0.04 ng.min.ml(-1); p?=?0.03). Insulin tolerance and diurnal variation of plasma cortisol concentrations were not different between groups. Unpredictable feeding impairs insulin response to glucose in growing lambs despite high quality food and normal weight gain. Irregular eating warrants investigation as a potentially remediable risk factor for disordered glucose metabolism. HubMed – eating


Meal skipping linked to increased visceral adipose tissue and triglycerides in overweight minority youth.

Obesity (Silver Spring). 2013 Apr 24;
House BT, Cook LT, Gyllenhammer LE, Schraw JM, Goran MI, Spruijt-Metz D, Weigensberg MJ, Davis JN

Objective: To investigate the impact of eating frequency on dietary intake, physical activity (PA), metabolic, and adiposity measures in minority youth. Design and Methods: This analysis included 185 overweight (?85(th) BMI percentile) Hispanic and African American youth (8-18 years) with the following cross-sectional measures: height, weight, BMI, dietary intake, body composition, metabolic parameters, PA, visceral adipose tissue (VAT), and subcutaneous adipose tissue. Each eating occasion (EO) was defined as ?50 calories and ?15 minutes from any previous EO. Participants were dichotomized based on EOs per 24-h into meal skippers <3 EO (MS; n=27) or normal/frequent eaters ?3 EO (NFE; n=158). ANCOVAs were used to assess dietary intakes, metabolic outcomes, adiposity, and PA between eating frequency groups. Results: MS compared to NFE consumed 24% fewer calories per 24-h (p?0.01), 21% more calories per EO (p?0.01), ate 40% less often (p?0.01), had 18% higher triglycerides (p=0.03), and 26% more VAT (p=0.03), with no differences in PA. Conclusions: Although meal skipping was associated with decreased energy intake, it was linked to increased calories per EO and higher triglycerides and VAT, which are strong indicators of deleterious metabolic profiles. These findings elucidate that meal skipping may be associated with increased VAT and related metabolic diseases in high-risk minority youth. HubMed – eating


Attack or Attacked: The Sensory and Fluid Mechanical Constraints of Copepods’ Predator-Prey Interactions.

Integr Comp Biol. 2013 Apr 23;
Kiørboe T

Many animals are predator and prey at the same time. This dual position represents a fundamental dilemma because gathering food often leads to increased exposure to predators. The optimization of the tradeoff between eating and not being eaten depends strongly on the sensing, feeding, and mechanisms for mobility of the parties involved. Here, I describe the mechanisms of sensing, escaping predators, and capturing prey in marine pelagic copepods. I demonstrate that feeding tradeoffs vary with feeding mode, and I describe simple fluid mechanical models that are used to quantify these tradeoffs and review observations and experiments that support the assumptions and test the predictions. I conclude by presenting a mechanistically underpinned model that predicts optimal foraging behaviors and the resulting size-scaling and magnitude of copepods’ clearance rates. HubMed – eating


[Nutritional status and physical condition of adolescent football players after consuming fishmeal as a nutritional complement].

Rev Peru Med Exp Salud Publica. 2013 Mar; 30(1): 49-53
Accinelli-Tanaka R, López-Oropeza L

The objective of the study is to identify the changes in the nutritional parameters and the physical condition of teenage players after eating fishmeal as a nutritional complement. For this purpose, a quasi-experimental study, blinded for investigators, was conducted, involving 100 teenage football players, divided in two groups, homogeneous in terms of all study parameters, one of which received fishmeal for four months. After evaluating the nutritional status and physical condition, before and after the intervention, no change was found in the nutritional and anthropometric status or laboratory results, or in the physical condition. However, those who received fishmeal did report a change in their hemoglobin and hematocrit levelsin comparison to the control group. In conclusion, the consumption of fishmeal did not lead to changes in the nutritional status or the physical condition of teenage football players. HubMed – eating