Tumor Burden Talks in Cancer Treatment With PEGylated Liposomal Drugs.

Tumor Burden Talks in Cancer Treatment with PEGylated Liposomal Drugs.

PLoS One. 2013; 8(5): e63078
Lin YY, Kao HW, Li JJ, Hwang JJ, Tseng YL, Lin WJ, Lin MH, Ting G, Wang HE

PEGylated liposomes are important drug carriers that can passively target tumor by enhanced permeability and retention (EPR) effect in neoplasm lesions. This study demonstrated that tumor burden determines the tumor uptake, and also the tumor response, in cancer treatment with PEGylated liposomal drugs in a C26/tk-luc colon carcinoma-bearing mouse model.Empty PEGylated liposomes (NanoX) and those encapsulated with VNB (NanoVNB) were labeled with In-111 to obtain InNanoX and InVNBL in high labeling yield and radiochemical purity (all >90%). BALB/c mice bearing either small (58.4±8.0 mm(3)) or large (102.4±22.0 mm(3)) C26/tk-luc tumors in the right dorsal flank were intravenously administered with NanoVNB, InNanoX, InVNBL, or NanoX as a control, every 7 days for 3 times. The therapeutic efficacy was evaluated by body weight loss, tumor growth inhibition (using calipers and bioluminescence imaging) and survival fraction. The scintigraphic imaging of tumor mouse was performed during and after treatment.The biodistribution study of InVNBL revealed a clear inverse correlation (r (2)?=?0.9336) between the tumor uptake and the tumor mass ranged from 27.6 to 623.9 mg. All three liposomal drugs showed better therapeutic efficacy in small-tumor mice than in large-tumor mice. Tumor-bearing mice treated with InVNBL (a combination drug) showed the highest tumor growth inhibition rate and survival fraction compared to those treated with NanoVNB (chemodrug only) and InNanoX (radionuclide only). Specific tumor targeting and significantly increased tumor uptake after periodical treatment with InVNBL were evidenced by scintigraphic imaging, especially in mice bearing small tumors.The significant differences in the outcomes of cancer treatment and molecular imaging between animals bearing small and large tumors revealed that tumor burden is a critical and discriminative factor in cancer therapy using PEGylated liposomal drugs. HubMed – drug


Targeting Caspase-3 as Dual Therapeutic Benefits by RNAi Facilitating Brain-Targeted Nanoparticles in a Rat Model of Parkinson’s Disease.

PLoS One. 2013; 8(5): e62905
Liu Y, Guo Y, An S, Kuang Y, He X, Ma H, Li J, Lv J, Zhang N, Jiang C

The activation of caspase-3 is an important hallmark in Parkinson’s disease. It could induce neuron death by apoptosis and microglia activation by inflammation. As a result, inhibition the activation of caspase-3 would exert synergistic dual effect in brain in order to prevent the progress of Parkinson’s disease. Silencing caspase-3 genes by RNA interference could inhibit the activation of caspase-3. We developed a brain-targeted gene delivery system based on non-viral gene vector, dendrigraft poly-L-lysines. A rabies virus glycoprotein peptide with 29 amino-acid linked to dendrigraft poly-L-lysines could render gene vectors the ability to get across the blood brain barrier by specific receptor mediated transcytosis. The resultant brain-targeted vector was complexed with caspase-3 short hairpin RNA coding plasmid DNA, yielding nanoparticles. In vivo imaging analysis indicated the targeted nanoparticles could accumulate in brain more efficiently than non-targeted ones. A multiple dosing regimen by weekly intravenous administration of the nanoparticles could reduce activated casapse-3 levels, significantly improve locomotor activity and rescue dopaminergic neuronal loss and in Parkinson’s disease rats’ brain. These results indicated the rabies virus glycoprotein peptide modified brain-targeted nanoparticles were promising gene delivery system for RNA interference to achieve anti-apoptotic and anti-inflammation synergistic therapeutic effects by down-regulation the expression and activation of caspase-3. HubMed – drug


Basolateral BMP Signaling in Polarized Epithelial Cells.

PLoS One. 2013; 8(5): e62659
Saitoh M, Shirakihara T, Fukasawa A, Horiguchi K, Sakamoto K, Sugiya H, Beppu H, Fujita Y, Morita I, Miyazono K, Miyazawa K

Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) regulate various biological processes, mostly mediated by cells of mesenchymal origin. However, the roles of BMPs in epithelial cells are poorly understood. Here, we demonstrate that, in polarized epithelial cells, BMP signals are transmitted from BMP receptor complexes exclusively localized at the basolateral surface of the cell membrane. In addition, basolateral stimulation with BMP increased expression of components of tight junctions and enhanced the transepithelial resistance (TER), counteracting reduction of TER by treatment with TGF-? or an anti-tumor drug. We conclude that BMPs maintain epithelial polarity via intracellular signaling from basolaterally localized BMP receptors. HubMed – drug


Diagnosis and Interim Treatment Outcomes from the First Cohort of Multidrug-Resistant Tuberculosis Patients in Tanzania.

PLoS One. 2013; 8(5): e62034
Mpagama SG, Heysell SK, Ndusilo ND, Kumburu HH, Lekule IA, Kisonga RM, Gratz J, Boeree MJ, Houpt ER, Kibiki GS

Kibong’oto National Tuberculosis Hospital (KNTH), Kilimanjaro, Tanzania.Characterize the diagnostic process and interim treatment outcomes from patients treated for multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) in Tanzania.A retrospective cohort study was performed among all patients treated at KNTH for pulmonary MDR-TB between November 2009 and September 2011.Sixty-one culture-positive MDR-TB patients initiated therapy, 60 (98%) with a prior history of TB treatment. Forty-one (67%) were male and 9 (14%) were HIV infected with a mean CD4 count of 424 (±106) cells/µl. The median time from specimen collection to MDR-TB diagnosis and from diagnosis to initiation of MDR-TB treatment was 138 days (IQR 101-159) and 131 days (IQR 32-233), respectively. Following treatment initiation four (7%) patients died (all HIV negative), 3 (5%) defaulted, and the remaining 54 (89%) completed the intensive phase. Most adverse drug reactions were mild to moderate and did not require discontinuation of treatment. Median time to culture conversion was 2 months (IQR 1-3) and did not vary by HIV status. In 28 isolates available for additional second-line drug susceptibility testing, fluoroquinolone, aminoglycoside and para-aminosalicylic acid resistance was rare yet ethionamide resistance was present in 9 (32%).The majority of MDR-TB patients from this cohort had survived a prolonged referral process, had multiple episodes of prior TB treatment, but did not have advanced AIDS and converted to culture negative early while completing an intensive inpatient regimen without serious adverse event. Further study is required to determine the clinical impact of second-line drug susceptibility testing and the feasibility of alternatives to prolonged hospitalization. HubMed – drug