Trials of Acupuncture for Drug Dependence: A Recommendation for Hypotheses Based on the Literature.

Trials of acupuncture for drug dependence: a recommendation for hypotheses based on the literature.

Acupunct Med. 2013 May 10;
White A

OBJECTIVES: After initial promising research into acupuncture for withdrawal from drugs of dependence, two large negative trials were published in 2002 and the use of acupuncture in US rehabilitation facilities fell. However, subsequently it has been maintained, despite a lack of support from systematic reviews. This suggests a mismatch between research and clinical observation, which could be due to the acupuncture technique used, choice of controls or outcome measures. This study aims to explore the mismatch. METHODS: An exploratory review of all 48 clinical trials on alcohol, cocaine, nicotine or opioid dependence included in current reviews. RESULTS: Studies with sham controls (that could be active) were less likely to be positive (33%) than those with non-acupuncture controls (75%). Positive results were more likely when measuring craving (56%) or withdrawal symptoms (58%) than when measuring abstinence (31%) or attrition (31%). Three treatment variables appeared to be associated with positive results: (1) body acupuncture, used in 13 studies, was associated with positive outcomes for craving and withdrawal symptoms but not for abstinence or attrition; (2) electroacupuncture, used in seven studies, was associated with positive results with all four outcomes; and (3) bilateral needling in 20 studies was associated with effects on abstinence, craving and withdrawal symptoms. CONCLUSIONS: The current evidence suggests that acupuncture may have some effects on drug dependence that have been missed because of choice of outcome in many previous studies, and future studies should use outcomes suggested by clinical experience. Body points and electroacupuncture, used in the original clinical observation, justify further research. HubMed – drug alcohol rehabilitation


Drowning deaths in Sweden with emphasis on the presence of alcohol and drugs – a retrospective study, 1992-2009.

BMC Public Health. 2013; 13: 216
Ahlm K, Saveman BI, Björnstig U

Drowning deaths constitute a significant proportion of unnatural deaths globally. In Sweden and other high-income countries, drowning deaths have decreased. This study investigates the epidemiology and current trends of unintentional, intentional, and undetermined drowning deaths with emphasis on the presence of alcohol and other drugs.During an 18-years period, 5,125 drowning deaths were autopsied in Sweden. Data on cases including toxicological analysis on alcohol, pharmaceutical drugs, and illicit drugs were obtained from the National Board of Forensic Medicine.During the study period, the annual incidence of drowning deaths in Sweden was 3.1/100,000 inhabitants and decreased on average by about 2% each year (p<0.001). The highest incidence was found among males and in middle/older age groups. The incidence increased 3% for each year of age. Children/adolescents (?18?years) constituted 5% of all drowning deaths. Of all drowned females in the study, 55% (847/1,547) committed suicide, which was a significantly higher proportion compared with males (21%, 763/3,578) (p<0.001). In total, 38% (1,656/4,377) of tested drowned persons had alcohol in their blood and the mean concentration was 1.8?g/l. In the unintentional drowning group, intentional drowning group, and the undetermined group, the proportion of alcohol positive was 44%, 24%, and 45%, respectively. One or several psychoactive drugs were present in the blood in 40% (1,688 /4,181) of all tested persons and in 69% (965/1,394) of tested persons who died from suicidal drowning. The most common drug was benzodiazepines (21%, 891/4,181). Illicit drugs were detected in 10% (82/854) of tested persons.Presence of alcohol and drugs were frequent and may have contributed to the drowning deaths. The incidence of drowning deaths significantly decreased during the study period. Males and the middle/older age groups had a higher incidence compared to females and children. Suicidal drowning was common especially among women. Alcohol and drugs are significant contributors in drowning deaths in Sweden and should be considered as part of a comprehensive prevention program. HubMed – drug alcohol rehabilitation


Characteristics and functional outcomes of brain injury caused by physical assault in Canada: a population-based study from an inpatient rehabilitation setting.

Disabil Rehabil. 2013 Mar 13;
Kim H, Bayley M, Dawson D, Mollayeva T, Colantonio A

Abstract Purpose: To investigate the characteristics and inpatient rehabilitation outcomes of persons who sustained a traumatic brain injury (TBI) resulting from physical assault – a form of intentional TBI – and compare these outcomes to those of persons with TBI resulting from other aetiologies. Method: A prospective population-based cohort study using inpatient rehabilitation data from Canadian population-based administrative databases for the fiscal years 2001-2006. Outcome measures were measures of functional independence (motor and cognitive), as measured by the FIM™ Instrument, and discharge destinations. Results: Characteristics associated with intentional TBI were being male, younger in age and unemployed; living alone and having a greater likelihood of alcohol/drug abuse prior to admission. The intentional TBI group showed poorer total functional gains at discharge from inpatient rehabilitation. Multivariate regression analyses showed that persons with intentional injury were less likely to be discharged home. Conclusions: Persons with TBI from physical assault are a distinct clinical group in Canadian inpatient rehabilitation settings. These findings can support clinicians in determining proper assessment, management, discharge planning and post-rehabilitation care that target specific needs of persons with TBI resulting from physical assault. Implications for Rehabilitation Clinicians should have appropriate training to properly assess the mental health status of this patient group. Inpatient rehabilitation facilities should be prepared to provide services targeting psychosocial, substance abuse and interpersonal relationship issues to persons with a TBI from physical assault while patients are still within a hospital setting. Follow-up clinical care and community support services are warranted for those with intentional TBIs, including provision of occupational rehabilitation services, such as vocational rehabilitation. The discharge team should be responsible for ensuring appropriate discharge to community in the absence of family or other advocates on behalf of the patient. HubMed – drug alcohol rehabilitation



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