Trauma-Related Correlates of Alcohol Use in Recently Deployed OEF/OIF Veterans.

Trauma-Related Correlates of Alcohol Use in Recently Deployed OEF/OIF Veterans.

J Trauma Stress. 2013 May 20;
Capone C, McGrath AC, Reddy MK, Shea MT

The co-occurrence of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and alcohol use disorders (AUDs) is well documented. Little is known about the factors that contribute to alcohol use and the development of AUDs among military personnel following deployment. The primary aim of this study was to examine trauma-related correlates of alcohol use in recently deployed Operation Enduring Freedom/Operation Iraqi Freedom veterans. Members of the Rhode Island National Guard and Army Reserves (N = 238) completed an in-person, initial assessment an average of 6 months postdeployment. Multiple regression analyses examined predictors of drinking outcomes (combat exposure, total PTSD symptoms, and PTSD symptom clusters) after accounting for gender, age, and history of AUD. Results indicated that total PTSD symptoms, but not combat exposure, significantly predicted alcohol use at the initial assessment. When PTSD symptom clusters were considered separately, reexperiencing symptoms (Cluster B) were the strongest predictor of total alcohol use (B = 3.58, p = .002) and heavy drinking episodes (B = 0.31, p = .005). Implications for these findings include early identification of risk factors that could lead to the development of AUDs, and the importance of integrated treatment approaches for co-occurring PTSD and AUD among veterans postdeployment. HubMed – addiction


How Do You Recognize Opiate Addiction in the Rehabilitation Patient?

Rehabil Nurs. 2013 May 21;
Gregg JA, Jones JS

HubMed – addiction


Regulating Prefrontal Cortex Activation: An Emerging Role for the 5-HT2A Serotonin Receptor in the Modulation of Emotion-Based Actions?

Mol Neurobiol. 2013 May 22;
Aznar S, Klein AB

The prefrontal cortex (PFC) is involved in mediating important higher-order cognitive processes such as decision making, prompting thereby our actions. At the same time, PFC activation is strongly influenced by emotional reactions through its functional interaction with the amygdala and the striatal circuitry, areas involved in emotion and reward processing. The PFC, however, is able to modulate amygdala reactivity via a feedback loop to this area. A role for serotonin in adjusting for this circuitry of cognitive regulation of emotion has long been suggested based primarily on the positive pharmacological effect of elevating serotonin levels in anxiety regulation. Recent animal and human functional magnetic resonance studies have pointed to a specific involvement of the 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT)2A serotonin receptor in the PFC feedback regulatory projection onto the amygdala. This receptor is highly expressed in the prefrontal cortex areas, playing an important role in modulating cortical activity and neural oscillations (brain waves). This makes it an interesting potential pharmacological target for the treatment of neuropsychiatric modes characterized by lack of inhibitory control of emotion-based actions, such as addiction and other impulse-related behaviors. In this review, we give an overview of the 5-HT2A receptor distribution (neuronal, intracellular, and anatomical) along with its functional and physiological effect on PFC activation, and how that relates to more recent findings of a regulatory effect of the PFC on the emotional control of our actions. HubMed – addiction


[Epigenetic regulation in neuronal differentiation and brain function].

Biol Aujourdhui. 2013; 207(1): 1-17
Kasprzyk L, Defossez PA, Miotto B

DNA methylation compacts chromatin structure and represses gene transcription. It is important for numerous cellular processes, including embryonic development, X-chromosome inactivation, suppression of transposable elements, and cellular differentiation. In addition, environmental cues, including drugs, pollutants, trauma or early-life social environment, alter DNA methylation patterns in different organs. For instance, studies have unravelled a complex and dynamic interplay between environment, DNA methylation and neuron function during development and in the adult. This crosstalk is hypothesized as an essential molecular event underlying the effects of long-term memory, drug addiction, and several psychotic and behavioural disorders. In this review, we give a summary of this exciting field of research and highlight the molecular functions of DNA methylation and of proteins interacting with methylated DNA. HubMed – addiction



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