Transitional Changes in Energy Intake, Skeletal Muscle Content and Nutritional Behavior in College Students During Course-Work Based Nutrition Education.

Transitional changes in energy intake, skeletal muscle content and nutritional behavior in college students during course-work based nutrition education.

Clin Nutr Res. 2013 Jul; 2(2): 125-34

The purpose of this study was to investigate whether elective course work based nutrition education in university can change students’ body composition and eating habits associated with obesity and its related health risk in first-year college students. A total of 38 students agreed and participated in the study. Participants received a series of lecture about obesity, weight management, and concepts of nutrition and food choices for 13 weeks. The students’ BMI and body composition, including body fat and muscle contents, were measured. A 24-hour diet recall for two days was performed for food intake analysis, and the questionnaires for dietary behaviors were collected at the beginning and the end of the study. Paired t-test and ?(2)-test were used for statistical analysis. Data showed that most of the anthropometric parameters including body weight were not significantly changed at the end of the coursework. Interestingly, skeletal muscle contents in both obese (BMI ? 23) and lean (18.5 ? BMI ? 22.9) subjects were significantly increased. Total energy intake was decreased in total subjects after the study. Also, general nutrition behavior of the subjects including enough hydration and utilization of nutrition knowledge were significantly improved during the study period. The total number of responses to doing aerobic exercise was slightly increased after the study, but the average frequency of exercise in each individual was not changed. These results suggest that class-work based nutrition education on a regular basis could be a time and cost effective method for improving body composition and nutritional behavior in general college students. HubMed – eating

Association of dietary quality indices with glycemic status in korean patients with type 2 diabetes.

Clin Nutr Res. 2013 Jul; 2(2): 100-6
Kim J, Cho Y, Park Y, Sohn C, Rha M, Lee MK, Jang HC

The present study was performed to evaluate the relationship between dietary quality indices including the Diet Quality Index-International (DQI-I), Alternate Healthy Eating Index (AHEI), and Healthy Diet Indicator (HDI) and glycemic status in Korean patients with type 2 diabetes. A total of 110 consecutive outpatients with type 2 diabetes who visited 2 university hospitals in Seoul and Seongnam from April 2004 to November 2006 were enrolled as subjects. At the time of enrollment, anthropometric parameters, dietary habits, experience of exercise, and metabolic parameters were obtained. Experienced registered dietitians collected one-day dietary intake using the 24-hour recall method. The mean scores for DQI-I, AHEI, and HDI were 68.9 ± 8.2, 39.4 ± 8.9, and 5.0 ± 1.3, respectively. After adjustment for age, body mass index, and energy intake, DQI-I and HDI were found to have a significant correlation with hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) (r = -0.21, p < 0.05; r = -0.28, p < 0.05), fasting plasma glucose (r = -0.21, p < 0.05; r = -0.23, p < 0.05), and postprandial 2-h glucose (r = -0.30, p < 0.05; r = -0.26, p < 0.05, respectively). However, AHEI did not have a significant correlation with HbA1c. In conclusion, the DQI-I and HDI may be useful tools in assessing diet quality and adherence to dietary recommendations in Korean patients with type 2 diabetes. Future research is required to determine whether the dietary quality indices have predictive validity for dietary and glycemic changes following diet education in a clinical setting. HubMed – eating

A foodborne outbreak of Aeromonas hydrophila in a college, Xingyi City, Guizhou, China, 2012.

Western Pac Surveill Response J. 2012 Oct; 3(4): 39-43
Zhang Q, Shi GQ, Tang GP, Zou ZT, Yao GH, Zeng G

On 12 May 2012, over 200 college students with acute diarrhoea were reported to the Guizhou Center for Disease Control and Prevention. We conducted an investigation to identify the agent and mode of transmission and to recommend control measures.A suspected case was a person at the college with onset of ? two of the following symptoms: diarrhoea (more than three loose stools in 24 hours), abdominal pain, vomiting or fever (> 37.5C) between 6 and 15 May 2012. A confirmed case also had a positive Aeromonas hydrophila culture from a stool sample. A retrospective-cohort study of 902 students compared attack rates (AR) by dining place, meals and food history. We reviewed the implicated premise, its processes and preparation of implicated food.We identified 349 suspected cases (AR = 14%) and isolated Aeromonas hydrophila from three stools of 15 cases. Students who ate in cafeteria A were more likely to be ill compared to those eating in other places (relative risk [RR]: 3.1, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 2.0-4.8). The cohort study implicated cold cucumber (RR: 2.6, 95% CI: 2.0-3.3) and houttuynia dishes (RR: 1.8, 95% CI: 1.4-2.3). Environmental investigation showed that vegetables were washed in polluted water from a tank close to the sewage ditch, then left at 30 °C for two hours before serving. The Escherichia coli count of the tank was well above the standard for drinking-water.This outbreak of Aeromonas hydrophila was most probably caused by salad ingredients washed in contaminated tank water. We recommended enhancing training of foodhandlers, ensuring tanks and sewerage systems comply with appropriate standards and adequate monitoring of drinking-water sources. HubMed – eating

Vibrio parahaemolyticus enteritis outbreak following a wedding banquet in a rural village – Kampong Speu, Cambodia, April 2012.

Western Pac Surveill Response J. 2012 Oct; 3(4): 25-8
Vandy S, Leakhann S, Phalmony H, Denny J, Roces MC

Foodborne outbreaks are common in Cambodia, but only a few investigations documenting the etiology and source have been conducted. In April, we learnt of 49 acute diarrhoea cases in a village following a wedding banquet. We undertook an investigation to identify the pathogen, source and mode of transmission.We interviewed banquet hosts and food handlers to obtain the menu and guest list. Guests were asked about signs and symptoms and onset of illness, time of meal and food or drinks consumed. Rectal swabs were taken from 13 cases for culture. A case-control study was undertaken; cases were guests who had acute diarrhoea within three days after the wedding and controls were guests who remained well during the same time period.There were 256 guests. Of 69 interviewees, 52 got sick (attack rate 75%). Aside from diarrhoea, cases had abdominal pain (94%), vomiting (48%), nausea (42%) and fever (25%). Incubation periods ranged from seven to 51 hours (median 16.5). Rectal swabs from three cases grew Vibrio parahaemolyticus. Among the food and drinks served, vegetable salad with raw octopus was the only one associated with illness (odds ratio: 6.6, 95% confidence interval: 1.3-36.1, P = 0.01).Vegetable salad with raw octopus was the suspected vehicle for transmission of this Vibrio parahaemolyticus enteritis outbreak. Messages regarding the risks from eating raw seafood were disseminated, and food handlers were advised to cook seafood to high temperatures. Efforts to improve foodborne disease surveillance and food safety are being undertaken. HubMed – eating

An outbreak of acute gastroenteritis associated with contaminated bottled water in a university – Jiangxi, China, 2012.

Western Pac Surveill Response J. 2012 Oct; 3(4): 20-4
Wang R, Cheng H, Zong J, Yu P, Fu W, Yang F, Shi G, Zeng G

On 23 May 2012, a university in Jiangxi, China reported a gastroenteritis outbreak. We investigated the outbreak to identify the agent, source and mode of transmission and to recommend control measures.A case was defined as any person from the university with onset of diarrhoea (? 3 times/24h) from 1 to 31 May 2012. Active case finding was conducted by reviewing university hospital and drug-store records and interviewing students, workers and teachers. We then conducted a case-control study in which we compared food, water and environmental exposure history. Water samples were collected and tested.We identified 417 cases – an attack rate (AR) of 4.7% (417/8781) for the university. There were 416 student cases (AR = 5.7%) distributed across all 11 colleges, five of which were more heavily affected (AR range = 5.9-14%). In the case-control study, cases had higher odds of having drunk bottled water (odds ratio [OR] = 4.1; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.7-9.9), and there was a dose-response relationship (?(2)trend = 4.6, P < 0.05). Drinking boiled bottled water was inversely associated with being a case (OR = 0.22, 95% CI = 0.07-0.71). Eating in any of the three university canteens or drinking-water from the city water supply was not associated with being a case. Pathogenic Escherichia coli was isolated from two unopened bottled water specimens and from four student cases.This gastroenteritis outbreak was most likely caused by contaminated bottled water. The company in question has been shut down and no further cases have been reported. Increased regulation of bottled water plants and better coordination between different investigators for future outbreaks is recommended. HubMed – eating