Training-Induced Behavioral and Brain Plasticity in Inhibitory Control.

Training-induced behavioral and brain plasticity in inhibitory control.

Front Hum Neurosci. 2013; 7: 427
Spierer L, Chavan CF, Manuel AL

Deficits in inhibitory control, the ability to suppress ongoing or planned motor or cognitive processes, contribute to many psychiatric and neurological disorders. The rehabilitation of inhibition-related disorders may therefore benefit from neuroplasticity-based training protocols aiming at normalizing inhibitory control proficiency and the underlying brain networks. Current literature on training-induced behavioral and brain plasticity in inhibitory control suggests that improvements may follow either from the development of automatic forms of inhibition or from the strengthening of top-down, controlled inhibition. Automatic inhibition develops in conditions of consistent and repeated associations between inhibition-triggering stimuli and stopping goals. Once established, the stop signals directly elicit inhibition, thereby bypassing slow, top-down executive control and accelerating stopping processes. In contrast, training regimens involving varying stimulus-response associations or frequent inhibition failures prevent the development of automatic inhibition and thus strengthen top-down inhibitory processes rather than bottom-up ones. We discuss these findings in terms of developing optimal inhibitory control training regimens for rehabilitation purposes. HubMed – rehab

Challenges in care of the child with special health care needs in a resource limited environment.

J Neurosci Rural Pract. 2013 Apr; 4(2): 204-6
Eseigbe EE, Taju NF, Lateef ST

To identify challenges encountered in the care of children with special health care needs in a resource limited environment a 10 year-old child with a diagnosis of Tuberous Sclerosis was studied. Challenges identified were in: making a definitive diagnosis, provision of adequate care, cost of care, meeting parental expectations and accessing community support for the child and family. Available specialist health care and related services, including community rehabilitation, were provided for the child and family. The study highlights the need for improved community awareness, development in the provision of specialist health care services and institution of governmental policies that identify, support and protect children with special health care needs. HubMed – rehab

Age, Gender, and Ethnicity of Counsellor Trainees and Corresponding Counselling Self-Efficacy: Research Findings and Implications for Counsellor Educators.

Int J Adv Couns. 2013; 35: 172-187
Lam S, Tracz S, Lucey C

This study explored the counselling self-efficacy of students in a counsellor education programme, in regard to age, gender, and ethnicity characteristics. To assess counselling self-efficacy, the Counselling Self-Estimate Inventory (COSE) of Larson et al. (Counsellor Education & Supervision 41: 120-130, 1992) was administered at the end of a semester to counselling students engaged in different stages of a counsellor training program. No significant differences were found in regard to gender and age-group categories, but significant differences were found among ethnic groups. It was found that Asian and White students generally had similar and also lower counselling self-efficacy means than the other ethnic groups in the sample in regard to several counselling-specific categories. Implications for counsellor educators in training counselling students of diverse characteristics are discussed. HubMed – rehab

An evaluation of the efficacy of the exercise on referral scheme in Northumberland, UK: association with physical activity and predictors of engagement. A naturalistic observation study.

BMJ Open. 2013; 3(8):
Hanson CL, Allin LJ, Ellis JG, Dodd-Reynolds CJ

Exercise on referral schemes (ERS) are widely commissioned in the UK but there is little evidence of their association with physical activity levels. We sought to assess the Northumberland exercise on referral scheme in terms of increased levels of physical activity and identify predictors of engagement.A naturalistic observational study.9 local authority leisure sites in Northumberland.2233 patients referred from primary and secondary care between July 2009 and September 2010.A 24-week programme including motivational consultations and supervised exercise sessions for participants.Uptake, 12-week adherence, 24-week completion, changes in Godin Leisure-Time Exercise Questionnaire scores after 24-weeks and attendance levels at supervised exercise sessions during the scheme. Three binary logistic regressions were used to examine demographic and referral factors associated with initial uptake, 12-week adherence and 24-week completion.Uptake was 81% (n=1811), 12-week adherence was 53.5% (n=968) and 24-week completion was 42.9% (n=777). Participants who completed significantly increased their self-reported physical activity levels at 24-weeks t (638)=-11.55, p<0.001. Completers attended a mean of 22.87 (12.47 SD) of a target 48 supervised sessions. Increasing age, being female and leisure site were associated with uptake, increasing age, Index of Multiple Deprivation and leisure site were associated with 12-week adherence and Body Mass Index and leisure site were associated with 24-week completion. Each regression significantly increased the prediction accuracy of stage of exit (non-starters vs starters 81.5%, dropouts before 12 weeks vs 12-week adherers 66.9%, and dropouts between 13 and 24 weeks 82.2%).Completers of the Northumberland ERS increased physical activity at 24 weeks, although the levels achieved were below the current UK guidelines of 150 min of moderate exercise per week. Leisure site was associated with uptake, adherence and completion. HubMed – rehab

Multidisciplinary treatment of disability in ehlers-danlos syndrome hypermobility type/hypermobility syndrome: A pilot study using a combination of physical and cognitive-behavioral therapy on 12 women.

Am J Med Genet A. 2013 Aug 2;
Bathen T, Hångmann AB, Hoff M, Andersen LO, Rand-Hendriksen S

Ehlers-Danlos Syndrome hypermobility type (EDS-HT) and joint hypermobility syndrome (JHS) are two overlapping heritable connective tissue disorders. Patients with these conditions have many and various complaints; limitations in performing daily activities, reduced muscle strength and proprioception, kinesiophobia, and pain. There is a lack of evidence-based treatment approaches; a few studies have shown effect of physiotherapy. Many authors propose multidisciplinary treatment, but this has neither been described nor evaluated for this patient group. The aim of this pilot study was to investigate if a multidisciplinary rehabilitation program combining physical and cognitive-behavioral therapy was feasible, safe and effective for 12 women with EDS-HT/JHS. Intervention was offered as a group program and consisted of three parts: (1) Two and a half week in a rehabilitation unit with testing, physical training, group discussions and lectures. (2) Individual home exercises for three months with weekly guidance by local physiotherapist. (3) Readmission four days for retesting and further training advice. All participants completed the intervention. We found significant changes in perceived performance of daily activities, significant increase of muscle strength and endurance and a significant reduction of kinesiophobia. There were smaller changes in self-perceived pain. The participants also reported increased participation in daily life. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. HubMed – rehab