Depress Anxiety. 2013 Apr 26;
Valiengo L, Benseñor IM, Goulart AC, de Oliveira JF, Zanao TA, Boggio PS, Lotufo PA, Fregni F, Brunoni AR

BACKGROUND: Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) is a promising nonpharmacological therapy for major depression. In the Sertraline versus Electrical Current Therapy for Treating Depression Clinical Trial (SELECT-TDCS) trial, phase-I (Brunoni et al., JAMA Psychiatry, 2013) we found that tDCS is effective for the acute episode. Here, we describe tDCS effects during phases II (crossover) and III (follow-up) of this trial (NCTs: 01149889 and 01149213). METHODS: Phase II (n = 25) was the open-label, crossover phase in which phase-I nonresponders who had received sham-tDCS received a 10-day course of active-tDCS. In phase-III (n = 42), all active-tDCS responders (>50% Montgomery-Asberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS) improvement or MADRS ? 12) were enrolled to a 24-week, follow-up phase in which a maximum of nine tDCS sessions were performed-every other week for 3 months and, thereafter, once a month for the subsequent 3 months-sessions would be interrupted earlier whether the subject relapsed. TDCS was applied at 2 mA/30 min, with the anode over the left and the cathode over the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex. Relapse was the outcome measure. RESULTS: In phase-II, 52% of completers responded to tDCS. In phase-III, the mean response duration was 11.7 weeks. The survival rate per Kaplan-Meier analysis was 47%. Patients with treatment-resistant depression presented a much lower 24-week survival rate as compared to nonrefractory patients (10% vs. 77%, OR = 5.52; P < .01). Antidepressant use (sertraline 50 mg/day, eight patients) was not a predictor of relapse. TDCS was well tolerated and with few side effects. CONCLUSION: Continuation tDCS protocols should be optimized as to prevent relapse among tDCS responders, particularly for patients with baseline treatment-resistant depression. HubMed – depression


Neurochemical and behavioral effects of green tea (Camellia sinensis): A model study.

Pak J Pharm Sci. 2013 May; 26(3): 511-6
Mirza B, Ikram H, Bilgrami S, Haleem DJ, Haleem MA

Being rich in polyphenolic compounds such as flavonoids, green tea is suggested to be a potential candidate for the treatment of obesity, stress, depression, Parkinson’s and other disorders. Since serotonin has an important role in the pathophysiology of these disorders, present study was designed to monitor the effects of green tea in rats. Green tea extract was provided to the male Albino Wistar rats for 5 weeks, and effects on behaviors were monitored. Results show a decrease in food intake after 5th week but not before. An increase in locomotive activities of the animals was observed, as monitored in novel as well as in familiar environment. Anxiolytic effects were observed in elevated plus maze but not in light dark activity box. An increase in dopamine and serotonin turnover was observed. Our results suggest that beneficial effects of green tea drinking might be due to alteration of serotonin and/or dopamine metabolism. We thereby propose that in further experiments, green tea should be administered in animal model of learned helplessness and effects on the development of adaptation to stress should be monitored. Neurochemical estimations of catecholamine and indoleamine in these animal models of stress exposed to green tea would help in understanding the anxiolytic effects of green tea. HubMed – depression


Noradrenergic neurotransmission within the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis modulates the retention of immobility in the rat forced swimming test.

Behav Pharmacol. 2013 Jun; 24(3): 214-21
Nagai MM, Gomes FV, Crestani CC, Resstel LB, Joca SR

The bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST) is a limbic structure that has a direct influence on the autonomic, neuroendocrine, and behavioral responses to stress. It was recently reported that reversible inactivation of synaptic transmission within this structure causes antidepressant-like effects, indicating that activation of the BNST during stressful situations would facilitate the development of behavioral changes related to the neurobiology of depression. Moreover, noradrenergic neurotransmission is abundant in the BNST and has an important role in the regulation of emotional processes related to the stress response. Thus, this study aimed to test the hypothesis that activation of adrenoceptors within the BNST facilitates the development of behavioral consequences of stress. To investigate this hypothesis, male Wistar rats were stressed (forced swimming, 15 min) and 24 h later received intra-BNST injections of vehicle, WB4101, RX821002, CGP20712, or ICI118,551, which are selective ?1, ?2, ?1, and ?2 adrenoceptor antagonists, respectively, 10 min before a 5-min forced swimming test. It was observed that administration of WB4101 (10 and 15 nmol), CGP20712 (5 and 10 nmol), or ICI118,551 (5 nmol) into the BNST reduced the immobility time of rats subjected to forced swimming test, indicating an antidepressant-like effect. These findings suggest that activation of ?1, ?1, and ?2 adrenoceptors in the BNST could be involved in the development of the behavioral consequences of stress. HubMed – depression