The Role of Vitamin D in Pathophysiology and Treatment of Fibromyalgia.

The Role of Vitamin D in Pathophysiology and Treatment of Fibromyalgia.

Curr Pain Headache Rep. 2013 Aug; 17(8): 355
Jesus CA, Feder D, Peres MF

Recent studies showed that most cells have receptors and enzymes responsible for metabolism of vitamin D. Several diseases have been linked to vitamin D deficiency, such as hypertension, diabetes, depression, Alzheimer’s disease, Parkinson’s disease, multiple sclerosis, and chronic pain syndromes such as fibromyalgia. The association between fibromyalgia and vitamin D deficiency is very controversial in the literature with conflicting studies and methodological problems, which leads to more questions than answers. The purpose of this article is to raise questions about the association of hypovitaminosis D with fibromyalgia considering causal relationships, treatment, and pathophysiological explanations. HubMed – depression


Stressful Life Events and Depression Symptoms: The Effect of Childhood Emotional Abuse on Stress Reactivity.

J Clin Psychol. 2013 Jun 25;
Shapero BG, Black SK, Liu RT, Klugman J, Bender RE, Abramson LY, Alloy LB

Stressful life events are associated with an increase in depressive symptoms and the onset of major depression. Importantly, research has shown that the role of stress changes over the course of depression. The present study extends the current literature by examining the effects of early life stress on emotional reactivity to current stressors.In a multiwave study (N = 281, mean age = 18.76; 68% female), we investigated the proximal changes that occur in depressive symptoms when individuals are faced with life stress and whether a history of childhood emotional abuse moderates this relationship.Results support the stress sensitivity hypothesis for early emotional abuse history. Individuals with greater childhood emotional abuse severity experienced greater increases in depressive symptoms when confronted with current dependent stressors, controlling for childhood physical and sexual abuse.This study highlights the importance of emotional abuse as an indicator for reactivity to stressful life events. HubMed – depression


Tool Kit for Screening Otologic Function of Older Adults1.

Am J Audiol. 2013 Jun; 22(1): 179-182
Weinstein BE

To propose a hearing health care tool kit, for use in primary care, that includes a new, comprehensive, and easy-to-administer self-report tool, namely, the Screening for Otologic Functional Impairments (SOFI). The target population for the proposed tool kit includes older adults with multimorbidity who are (a) at risk for hearing-related functional deficits and/or (b) likely to benefit from targeted audiologic interventions designed to optimize function, support independence, maximize safety, and cultivate self-sufficiency and social connectedness (American Academy of Nursing’s Expert Panel on Acute and Critical Care, 2012).Twenty-nine older adults with varying levels of hearing impairment drawn from 2 ear, nose, and throat clinics and 1 university clinic underwent hearing testing and completed a series of self-report tools designed to assess otologic function and depression. All of the participants completed the SOFI on 2 occasions.The SOFI has high reliability and validity and the potential for identifying older adults requiring audiologic intervention.The proposed tool kit, for use in primary care, includes several components that are integral to help-seeking behavior. The goal is to identify older adults with multimorbidity who are at risk for otologic conditions, that, once identified and treated, may help promote older adults’ quality of care and life. HubMed – depression


The EEG Correlates of the TMS Induced EMG Silent Period in Humans.

Neuroimage. 2013 Jun 22;
Farzan F, Barr MS, Hoppenbrouwers SS, Fitzgerald PB, Chen R, Pascual-Leone A, Daskalakis ZJ

Application of magnetic or electrical stimulation to the motor cortex can result in a period of electromyography (EMG) silence in a tonically active peripheral muscle. This period of EMG silence is referred to as the silent period (SP). The duration of SP shows intersubject variability and reflects the integrity of cortical and corticospinal pathways. A non-invasive technique for assessing the duration of SP is the combination of Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (TMS) with EMG. Utilizing TMS-EMG, several studies have reported on the shortening or lengthening of SP in neuropsychiatric disorders such as schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, depression, obsessive compulsive disorder, epilepsy, Parkinson’s disease, and stroke. However, cortical, corticospinal and peripheral components are difficult to disentangle from EMG alone. Here, we use the multimodal neuroimaging technique of TMS-EMG combined with concurrent electroencephalography (EEG) recording to further examine the cortical origin of SP and the cortical oscillatory activity that underlies SP genesis. We demonstrate that the duration of SP is related to the temporal characteristics of the cortical reactivity and the power of delta to alpha oscillations in both local and remote areas ipsilateral and contralateral to the stimulation site, and beta oscillations locally. We illustrate that, compared to EMG, the EEG indices of the SP provide additional information about the brain dynamics and propose that the EEG measures of SP may be used in future clinical and research investigations to more precisely delineate the mechanisms underlying inhibitory impairments. HubMed – depression