The Role of Tumor Tissue Architecture in Treatment Penetration and Efficacy: An Integrative Study.

The role of tumor tissue architecture in treatment penetration and efficacy: an integrative study.

Front Oncol. 2013; 3: 111
Rejniak KA, Estrella V, Chen T, Cohen AS, Lloyd MC, Morse DL

Despite the great progress that has been made in understanding cancer biology and the potential molecular targets for its treatment, the majority of drugs fail in the clinical trials. This may be attributed (at least in part) to the complexity of interstitial drug transport in the patient’s body, which is hard to test experimentally. Similarly, recent advances in molecular imaging have led to the development of targeted biomarkers that can predict pharmacological responses to therapeutic interventions. However, both the drug and biomarker molecules need to access the tumor tissue and be taken up into individual cells in concentrations sufficient to exert the desired effect. To investigate the process of drug penetration at the mesoscopic level we developed a computational model of interstitial transport that incorporates the biophysical properties of the tumor tissue, including its architecture and interstitial fluid flow, as well as the properties of the agents. This model is based on the method of regularized Stokeslets to describe the fluid flow coupled with discrete diffusion-advection-reaction equations to model the dynamics of the drugs. Our results show that the tissue cellular porosity and density influence the depth of penetration in a non-linear way, with sparsely packed tissues being traveled through more slowly than the denser tissues. We demonstrate that irregularities in the cell spatial configurations result in the formation of interstitial corridors that are followed by agents leading to the emergence of tissue zones with less exposure to the drugs. We describe how the model can be integrated with in vivo experiments to test the extravasation and penetration of the targeted biomarkers through the tumor tissue. A better understanding of tissue- or compound-specific factors that limit the penetration through the tumors is important for non-invasive diagnoses, chemotherapy, the monitoring of treatment responses, and the detection of tumor recurrence. HubMed – drug


Carcinomatous meningitis: Leptomeningeal metastases in solid tumors.

Surg Neurol Int. 2013; 4(Suppl 4): S265-88
Le Rhun E, Taillibert S, Chamberlain MC

Leptomeningeal metastasis (LM) results from metastatic spread of cancer to the leptomeninges, giving rise to central nervous system dysfunction. Breast cancer, lung cancer, and melanoma are the most frequent causes of LM among solid tumors in adults. An early diagnosis of LM, before fixed neurologic deficits are manifest, permits earlier and potentially more effective treatment, thus leading to a better quality of life in patients so affected. Apart from a clinical suspicion of LM, diagnosis is dependent upon demonstration of cancer in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) or radiographic manifestations as revealed by neuraxis imaging. Potentially of use, though not commonly employed, today are use of biomarkers and protein profiling in the CSF. Symptomatic treatment is directed at pain including headache, nausea, and vomiting, whereas more specific LM-directed therapies include intra-CSF chemotherapy, systemic chemotherapy, and site-specific radiotherapy. A special emphasis in the review discusses novel agents including targeted therapies, that may be promising in the future management of LM. These new therapies include anti-epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) tyrosine kinase inhibitors erlotinib and gefitinib in nonsmall cell lung cancer, anti-HER2 monoclonal antibody trastuzumab in breast cancer, anti-CTLA4 ipilimumab and anti-BRAF tyrosine kinase inhibitors such as vermurafenib in melanoma, and the antivascular endothelial growth factor monoclonal antibody bevacizumab are currently under investigation in patients with LM. Challenges of managing patients with LM are manifold and include determining the appropriate patients for treatment as well as the optimal route of administration of intra-CSF drug therapy. HubMed – drug


Consensus Statement on Research Definitions for Drug-Resistant Tuberculosis in Children.

J Pediatric Infect Dis Soc. 2013 Jun; 2(2): 100-109
Seddon JA, Perez-Velez CM, Schaaf HS, Furin JJ, Marais BJ, Tebruegge M, Detjen A, Hesseling AC, Shah S, Adams LV, Starke JR, Swaminathan S, Becerra MC,

Few children with drug-resistant (DR) tuberculosis (TB) are identified, diagnosed, and given an appropriate treatment. The few studies that have described this vulnerable population have used inconsistent definitions. The World Health Organization (WHO) definitions used for adults with DR-TB and for children with drug-susceptible TB are not always appropriate for children with DR-TB. The Sentinel Project on Pediatric Drug-Resistant Tuberculosis was formed in 2011 as a network of experts and stakeholders in childhood DR-TB. An early priority was to establish standardized definitions for key parameters in order to facilitate study comparisons and the development of an evidence base to guide future clinical management. This consensus statement proposes standardized definitions to be used in research. In particular, it suggests consistent terminology, as well as definitions for measures of exposure, drug resistance testing, previous episodes and treatment, certainty of diagnosis, site and severity of disease, adverse events, and treatment outcome. HubMed – drug


Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease patients of Bangladesh.

World J Hepatol. 2013 May 27; 5(5): 281-7
Alam S, Noor-E-Alam SM, Chowdhury ZR, Alam M, Kabir J

To explore the prevalence and risk factors for nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) patients.We have included 493 patients with sonographic evidence of a fatty change, and 177 of these individuals were evaluated and confirmed after liver biopsy. The exclusion criteria consisted of significant alcohol abuse (< 20 g daily), evidence of hepatitis B and C, evidence of drug-induced fatty liver disease and other specific liver diseases such as hemochromatosis, Wilson's disease or autoimmune liver disease. The patients were assessed for metabolic syndrome, and biochemical, anthropometric and histopathological evaluations were carried out. The degree of disease activity in the NAFLD patients was evaluated using the NAFLD Activity Score. The data were analyzed by SPSS, version 16.0.Females predominated among the study participants (250, 57.0%), and the mean age was 40.8 ± 10.2 years. The numbers of overweight, obese?I?and obese II patients were 58 (13.2%), 237 (53.9%) and 93 (21.2%), respectively. However, there were 422 (96.2%) centrally obese patients. NASH was absent in 10 (5.6%) cases, borderline in 92 (52.6%) cases and present in 75 (42.4%) cases. The presence of diabetes could significantly (P = 0.001) differentiate NASH from simple steatosis. The following parameters did not influence the development of NASH: age, sex, basal metabolic index, waist circumference, serum high-density lipoprotein, triglyceride, insulin resistance index, hypertension and metabolic syndrome. The serum gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT) level was significantly higher (P = 0.05, 51.7 ± 32.8 and 40.4 ± 22.6 U/L) in the NASH patients, with a sensitivity of 45% and a specificity of only 68%. The serum alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase levels were not able to predict NASH.Females were the predominant sufferers of NAFLD in Bangladesh. The prevalence of NASH was high. Diabetes was found to be the main culprit in developing NASH. GGT was the only biochemical marker of NASH. We recommend liver biopsy in NAFLD patients who have diabetes and elevated GGT. HubMed – drug