The Role of the Neuropeptide S System in Addiction: Focus on Its Interaction With the CRF and Hypocretin/orexin Neurotransmission.

The role of the neuropeptide S system in addiction: Focus on its interaction with the CRF and hypocretin/orexin neurotransmission.

Filed under: Addiction Rehab

Prog Neurobiol. 2012 Oct 3;
Cannella N, Kallupi M, Ruggeri B, Ciccocioppo R, Ubaldi M

Recent behavioral, pharmacological and molecular findings have linked the NPS system to drug dependence. Most of the evidence supports the possibility that increased NPS activity may contribute to shaping vulnerability to addiction, especially relapse. However, data suggesting that the anxiolytic-like properties of NPS may have protective effects on addiction have been also published. In addition, evidence from conditioned place preference experiments, though not unequivocal, suggests that NPS per se is devoid of motivational properties. Intriguingly, several effects of NPS on drugs of abuse appear to be mediated by downstream activation of brain corticotrophin releasing factor (CRF) and hypocretin-1/orexin-A (Hcrt-1/Ox-A) systems. The major objective of the present article is to review the existing work on NPS and addiction. Particular attention is devoted to the interpretation of findings revealing complex neuroanatomical and functional interactions between NPS, CRF, and the Hcrt-1/Ox-A systems. Original data aimed at shedding light on the role of NPS in reward processing are also shown. Finally, existing findings are discussed within the framework of addiction theories, and the potential of the NPS system as a treatment target for addiction is analyzed.
HubMed – addiction


Carbon source and myc expression influence the antiproliferative actions of metformin.

Filed under: Addiction Rehab

Cancer Res. 2012 Oct 4;
Javeshghani S, Zakikhani M, Austin S, Bazile M, Blouin MJ, Topisirovic I, St-Pierre J, Pollak MN

Epidemiologic and experimental data have led to increased interest in possible roles of biguanides in cancer prevention and/or treatment. Prior studies suggest that the primary action of metformin is inhibition of oxidative phosphorylation, resulting in reduced mitochondrial ATP production and activation of AMPK. In vitro, this may lead to AMPK-dependent growth inhibition if AMPK and its effector pathways are intact, or to an energetic crisis if these are defective. We now demonstrate that the effect of exposure of several transformed cell lines to metformin varies with carbon source: in the presence of glutamine and absence of glucose, a 75% decrease in cellular ATP and an 80% decrease in cell number are typical; in contrast, when glucose is present, metformin exposure leads to increased glycolysis, with only a modest reduction in ATP level and cell number. Overexpression of myc was associated with sensitization to the antiproliferative effects of metformin, consistent with myc involvement in “glutamine addiction”. Our results reveal previously unrecognized factors that influence metformin sensitivity and suggest that metformin-induced increase in glycolysis attenuates the antiproliferative effects of the compound.
HubMed – addiction


[Addictive behavior among the elderly.]

Filed under: Addiction Rehab

Presse Med. 2012 Oct 4;
Menecier P, Fernandez L

Addictive behavior still persists among the elderly, mainly concerning substance abuse, such as alcohol, tobacco or psychotropic drugs and addictive practices such as gambling. Illegal substances or cyber-addictions appear much less often. The environment (place of residence or care) and/or economic factors may influence behavior and practices. The incidence of somatic illness or psychiatric disorders, such as cognitive impairment among the elderly patients, complicates even further the presentation of addictive disorders and their treatment. The age factor does not seem to lessen the suffering felt by the patient and care is required in an equal manner for all ages. Prevention (maintenance of personal autonomy and quality of life throughout the ageing process) plays an essential role along with the offer of care. The lack of scientific data such as the absence of validation for adult care among the elderly, leave wide scope for epidemiological, clinical and theoretical research.
HubMed – addiction


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