The Role of Reproductive Hormones in the Development and Maintenance of Eating Disorders.

The role of reproductive hormones in the development and maintenance of eating disorders.

Expert Rev Obstet Gynecol. 2012 Nov 1; 7(6): 573-583
Baker JH, Girdler SS, Bulik CM

Much remains to be understood about the etiology of eating disorders. There is substantial evidence that reproductive hormones, specifically estrogens, play a direct role in normal food intake. Evidence is increasing that the reproductive hormones play a role in the abnormal food intake associated with eating disorders. For example, there is an inverse association between estradiol and eating disorder symptoms. Preliminary studies also suggest that hormone augmentation may be a beneficial adjunct to the standard treatment of choice for eating disorders. However, research is limited, so definitive conclusions about the benefit of hormone augmentation in treatment cannot be drawn. Future research, with a focus on translational studies, should continue to explore the role of reproductive hormones in the vulnerability to and maintenance of eating disorders. HubMed – eating


The Body Perfect Ideal and Eating Regulation Goals: Investigating the Role of Adolescents’ Identity Styles.

J Youth Adolesc. 2013 Apr 14;
Verstuyf J, Van Petegem S, Vansteenkiste M, Soenens B, Boone L

Adolescents are exposed to images depicting the thin or muscular ideal almost on a daily basis. When the body perfect ideal is adopted, adolescents are at increased risk for developing unhealthy and disordered eating behaviors. The aim of the current 3-wave longitudinal study among adolescents (N = 418; 54 % girls) was to investigate whether different styles of identity exploration (i.e., information-oriented, normative, and diffuse-avoidant) are associated differentially with changes in adoption of the body perfect ideal, which, in turn, would relate to changes in appearance-focused and health-focused eating regulation. Results indicated that the information-oriented style predicted decreases and the normative style predicted increases in adoption of the body perfect ideal. In turn, adoption of the body perfect ideal predicted significant increases in appearance-focused eating regulation but not in health-focused eating regulation. A diffuse-avoidant style was unrelated to changes in adoption of the body perfect, yet directly predicted decreases in health-focused eating regulation. Theoretical and clinical implications of these findings are discussed. HubMed – eating


Infectious Disease Burden Related to Child Day Care in The Netherlands.

Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2013 Apr 11;
Enserink R, Ypma R, Donker GA, Smit HA, van Pelt W

BACKGROUND:: Studying day care-associated infectiousdisease dynamics aids in formulating evidence-based guidelines for disease control, thereby supporting day care centers in their continuous efforts to provide their child population with a safe and hygienic environment. The objective of this study was to estimate the (excess)infectious disease burdenrelated to child day care attendance in the Netherlands. METHODS:: A Dutch surveillance network of child day care centers (DCCs)prospectively reportedon infectious diseaseepisodesand related use of health care among their child population on a daily basis from March 2010 – March 2012. RESULTS:: Gastroenteritis (387 per 1000 child-years) and influenza-like illness(247per 1000 child-years)were the most frequently reported infectious diseases. DCCs reported these infectiousdiseasesto occur twice as often among children aged 0-2 years oldcompared tochildren aged 2-4 years old. Antibiotic treatment was required in 6%, ageneral practitionervisit in29% and hospitalization in 2% of infectious diseaseepisodes.DCC incidences of gastroenteritis and influenza-like illness requiring children to visit a general practitioner were approximately twice as high asgeneral population estimates for this age group.Part of the DCCs indicated to not always wash the hands of children before eating (34%) or after a toilet visit (15%) or to not always clean the toilet and kitchen areas (17%) on a daily basis. CONCLUSION:: The infectious disease risk associated with child day care attendance is substantial, particularly among the very youngattendees, in excess of general population estimates for this age group and potentially partly preventable. HubMed – eating


Short-term heating reduces the anti-inflammatory effects of fresh raw garlic extracts on the LPS-induced production of NO and pro-inflammatory cytokines by downregulating allicin activity in RAW 264.7 macrophages.

Food Chem Toxicol. 2013 Apr 11;
Shin JH, Ryu JH, Kang MJ, Hwang CR, Han J, Kang D

Garlic has a variety of biologic activities, including anti-inflammatory properties. Although garlic has several biologic activities, some people dislike eating fresh raw garlic because of its strong taste and smell. Therefore, garlic formulations involving heating procedures have been developed. In this study, we investigated whether short-term heating affects the anti-inflammatory properties of garlic. Fresh and heated raw garlic extracts (FRGE and HRGE) were prepared with incubation at 25°C and 95°C, respectively, for 2 h. Treatment with FRGE and HRGE significantly reduced the LPS-induced increase in the pro-inflammatory cytokine concentration (TNF-?, IL-1?, and IL-6) and NO through HO-1 upregulation in RAW 264.7 macrophages. The anti-inflammatory effect was greater in FRGE than in HRGE. The allicin concentration was higher in FRGE than in HRGE. Allicin treatment showed reduced production of pro-inflammatory cytokines and NO and increased HO-1 activity. The results show that the decrease in LPS-induced NO and pro-inflammatory cytokines in RAW 264.7 macrophages through HO-1 induction was greater for FRGE compared with HRGE. Additionally, the results indicate that allicin is responsible for the anti-inflammatory effect of FRGE. Our results suggest a potential therapeutic use of allicin in the treatment of chronic inflammatory disease. HubMed – eating



Thin- A documentary about eating disorders. (3/11) – The 2006 cinéma vérité documentary film, THIN, directed by Lauren Greenfield and distributed by HBO, is an exploration of The Renfrew Center in Coconut Creek…