The Role of Muscle in Bone Repair: The Cells, Signals, and Tissue Responses to Injury.

The Role of Muscle in Bone Repair: The Cells, Signals, and Tissue Responses to Injury.

Curr Osteoporos Rep. 2013 Apr 17;
Shah K, Majeed Z, Jonason J, O’Keefe RJ

Bone repair is a complicated process that includes many types of cells, signaling molecules, and growth factors. Fracture healing involves a temporally and spatially regulated biologic process that involves recruitment of stem cells to the injury site, tissue specific differentiation, angiogenesis, and remodeling. In light of its proximity to bone and abundant vascularity, muscle is an important potential source of cells and signals for bone healing. More complete understanding of the role of muscle in bone formation and repair will provide new therapeutic approaches to enhance fracture healing. Recent studies establish that muscle-derived stem cells are able to differentiate into cartilage and bone and can directly participate in fracture healing. The role of muscle-derived stem cells is particularly important in fractures associated with more severe injury to the periosteum. Sarcopenia is a serious consequence of aging, and studies show a strong association between bone mass and lean muscle mass. Muscle anabolic agents may improve function and reduce the incidence of fracture with aging. HubMed – rehab


Combined effect of motor imagery and peripheral nerve electrical stimulation on the motor cortex.

Exp Brain Res. 2013 Apr 17;
Saito K, Yamaguchi T, Yoshida N, Tanabe S, Kondo K, Sugawara K

Although motor imagery enhances the excitability of the corticospinal tract, there are no peripheral afferent inputs during motor imagery. In contrast, peripheral nerve electrical stimulation (ES) can induce peripheral afferent inputs; thus, a combination of motor imagery and ES may enhance the excitability of the corticospinal tract compared with motor imagery alone. Moreover, the level of stimulation intensity may also be related to the modulation of the excitability of the corticospinal tract during motor imagery. Here, we evaluated whether a combination of motor imagery and peripheral nerve ES influences the excitability of the corticospinal tract and measured the effect of ES intensity on the excitability induced during motor imagery. The imagined task was a movement that involved touching the thumb to the little finger, whereas ES involved simultaneous stimulation of the ulnar and median nerves at the wrist. Two different ES intensities were used, one above the motor threshold and another above the sensory threshold. Further, we evaluated whether actual movement with afferent input induced by ES modulates the excitability of the corticospinal tract as well as motor imagery. We found that a combination of motor imagery and ES enhanced the excitability of the motor cortex in the thenar muscle compared with the other condition. Furthermore, we established that the modulation of the corticospinal tract was related to ES intensity. However, we found that the excitability of the corticospinal tract induced by actual movement was enhanced by peripheral nerve ES above the sensory threshold. HubMed – rehab


New Evidence for Therapies in Stroke Rehabilitation.

Curr Atheroscler Rep. 2013 Jun; 15(6): 331
Dobkin BH, Dorsch A

Neurologic rehabilitation aims to reduce impairments and disabilities so that persons with serious stroke can return to participation in usual self-care and daily activities as independently as feasible. New strategies to enhance recovery draw from a growing understanding of how types of training, progressive task-related practice of skills, exercise for strengthening and fitness, neurostimulation, and drug and biological manipulations can induce adaptations at multiple levels of the nervous system. Recent clinical trials provide evidence for a range of new interventions to manage walking, reach and grasp, aphasia, visual field loss, and hemi-inattention. HubMed – rehab