The Relationship of Copper to DNA Damage and Damage Prevention in Humans.

The relationship of copper to DNA damage and damage prevention in humans.

Mutat Res. 2012 May 1; 733(1-2): 83-91
Linder MC

Copper ions are well suited to facilitate formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) that can damage biomolecules, including DNA and chromatin. That this can occur in vitro with isolated DNA or chromatin,or by exposure of cultured mammalian cells to copper complexed with various agents, has been well demonstrated. Whether that is likely to occur in vivo is not as clear. This review addresses the question of whether and how copper ions or complexes – in forms that could be present in vivo, damage DNA and chromosome structure and/or promote epigenetic changes that can lead to pathology and diseases, including cancer and neurological conditions such as Alzheimer’s disease, Lewy body dementias, and spongiform encephalopathies. This question is considered in light of our knowledge that copper-dependent enzymes are important contributors to antioxidant defense, and that the mammalian organism has robust mechanisms for maintaining constant levels of copper not only in body fluids but in its major organs. Overall,and except in unusual genetic states that lead to copper overload in specific cells (particularly those in liver), it appears that excessive intake of copper is not a significant factor in the development of disease states. HubMed – drug


Availability of drug samples in hospitals: opportunity or threat?

Can J Hosp Pharm. 2013 Jan; 66(1): 40-1
Barthélémy I, Khvan Y, Ly T, Atkison S, Lebel D, Bussières JF

HubMed – drug


Drug shortages in health care institutions: perspectives in early 2013.

Can J Hosp Pharm. 2013 Jan; 66(1): 39-40
Barthélémy I, Lebel D, Bussières JF

HubMed – drug


Cethromycin: A New Ketolide Antibiotic (March).

Ann Pharmacother. 2013 Mar 5;
Mansour H, Chahine EB, Karaoui LR, El-Lababidi RM

OBJECTIVE:To review the pharmacology, chemistry, microbiology, in vitro susceptibility, mechanism of resistance, pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, clinical efficacy, safety, drug interactions, dosage, and administration of cethromycin, a new ketolide antibiotic.DATA SOURCES:Literature was obtained through searching PubMed (1950-October 2012), International Pharmaceutical Abstracts (1970-October 2012), and a bibliographic review of published articles. Search terms included cethromycin, ABT-773, ketolide antibiotic, and community-acquired pneumonia.STUDY SELECTION AND DATA EXTRACTION:All available in vitro and preclinical studies, as well as Phase 1, 2, and 3 clinical studies published in English were evaluated to summarize the pharmacology, chemistry, microbiology, efficacy, and safety of cethromycin in the treatment of respiratory tract infections.DATA SYNTHESIS:Cethromycin, a new ketolide, has a similar mechanism of action to telithromycin with an apparently better safety profile. Cethromycin displays in vitro activity against selected gram-positive, gram-negative, and atypical bacteria. The proposed indication of cethromycin is treatment of mild to moderate community-acquired bacterial pneumonia in patients aged 18 years or older. Based on clinical studies, the recommended dose is 300 mg orally once a day without regard to meals. Cethromycin has an orphan drug designation for tularemia, plague, and anthrax prophylaxis. The Food and Drug Administration denied approval for the treatment of community-acquired pneumonia in 2009; a recent noninferiority trial showed comparable efficacy between cethromycin and clarithromycin. Preliminary data on adverse effects suggest that cethromycin is safe and gastrointestinal adverse effects appear to be dose-related.CONCLUSIONS:Cethromycin appears to be a promising ketolide for the treatment of mild to moderate community-acquired pneumonia. It was denied approval by the FDA in 2009 pending more evidence to show its efficacy, with more recent studies showing its noninferiority to antibiotics for the same indication. HubMed – drug