The Relationship Between Brain Oscillatory Activity and Therapeutic Effectiveness of Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation in the Treatment of Major Depressive Disorder.

The relationship between brain oscillatory activity and therapeutic effectiveness of transcranial magnetic stimulation in the treatment of major depressive disorder.

Front Hum Neurosci. 2013; 7: 37
Leuchter AF, Cook IA, Jin Y, Phillips B

Major depressive disorder (MDD) is marked by disturbances in brain functional connectivity. This connectivity is modulated by rhythmic oscillations of brain electrical activity, which enable coordinated functions across brain regions. Oscillatory activity plays a central role in regulating thinking and memory, mood, cerebral blood flow, and neurotransmitter levels, and restoration of normal oscillatory patterns is associated with effective treatment of MDD. Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) is a robust treatment for MDD, but the mechanism of action (MOA) of its benefits for mood disorders remains incompletely understood. Benefits of rTMS have been tied to enhanced neuroplasticity in specific brain pathways. We summarize here the evidence that rTMS entrains and resets thalamocortical oscillators, normalizes regulation and facilitates reemergence of intrinsic cerebral rhythms, and through this mechanism restores normal brain function. This entrainment and resetting may be a critical step in engendering neuroplastic changes and the antidepressant effects of rTMS. It may be possible to modify the method of rTMS administration to enhance this MOA and achieve better antidepressant effectiveness. We propose that rTMS can be administered: (1) synchronized to a patient’s individual alpha frequency (IAF), or synchronized rTMS (sTMS); (2) as a low magnetic field strength sinusoidal waveform; and, (3) broadly to multiple brain areas simultaneously. We present here the theory and evidence indicating that these modifications could enhance the therapeutic effectiveness of rTMS for the treatment of MDD. HubMed – depression


Bibliotherapy for depression.

Aust Fam Physician. 2013 Apr; 42(4): 199-200
Handbook Of Non Drug Intervention Project Team H

Bibliotherapy can be used to treat mild to moderate depression or subthreshold depressive symptoms, as a sole or supplementary therapy. Bibliotherapy is a form of guided self-help. The patient works through a structured book, independently from the doctor. The role of the doctor is to support and motivate the patient as they continue through the book and to help clarify any questions or concerns the patient may have. HubMed – depression


Chronic fatigue syndrome – A patient centred approach to management.

Aust Fam Physician. 2013 Apr; 42(4): 191-3
Arroll M, Arroll B

Chronic fatigue syndrome (myalgic encephalomyelitis) is a diagnosis that can attract feelings of stigma in the patient due to the lack of a definite diagnostic biomarker. To ensure that the patient firstly understands the diagnosis, and subsequently is comfortable with the treatment suggested, a patient centred approach is advised within the consultation.This article presents a hypothetical case and uses this to give guidance on methods for negotiating the diagnosis and treatment of chronic fatigue syndrome.It is important to reassure the patient that negative investigation results and the suggestion of treatment options that are also used for depressive illness (eg. antidepressants and cognitive behavioural therapy), does not mean that their illness experience is fabricated or that they are being treated for depression. Once red flag features are ruled out and any exclusory illnesses identified, a multidisciplinary pragmatic rehabilitation program can be implemented. This includes strategies for increasing social support, liaising with employers and graded return to activities in a ‘What matters to you?’ approach. HubMed – depression