The Potential of Bacteria Isolated From Ruminal Contents of Seaweed-Eating North Ronaldsay Sheep to Hydrolyse Seaweed Components and Produce Methane by Anaerobic Digestion in Vitro.

The potential of bacteria isolated from ruminal contents of seaweed-eating North Ronaldsay sheep to hydrolyse seaweed components and produce methane by anaerobic digestion in vitro.

Filed under: Eating Disorders

Microb Biotechnol. 2012 Nov 22;
Williams AG, Withers S, Sutherland AD

The production of methane biofuel from seaweeds is limited by the hydrolysis of polysaccharides. The rumen microbiota of seaweed-eating North Ronaldsay sheep was studied for polysaccharidic bacterial isolates degrading brown-seaweed polysaccharides. Only nine isolates out of 65 utilized >?90% of the polysaccharide they were isolated on. The nine isolates (eight Prevotella spp. and one Clostridium butyricum) utilized whole Laminaria hyperborea extract and a range of seaweed polysaccharides, including alginate (seven out of nine isolates), laminarin and carboxymethylcellulose (eight out of nine isolates); while two out of nine isolates additionally hydrolysed fucoidan to some extent. Crude enzyme extracts from three of the isolates studied further had diverse glycosidases and polysaccharidase activities; particularly against laminarin and alginate (two isolates were shown to have alginate lyase activity) and notably fucoidan and carageenan (one isolate). In serial culture rumen microbiota hydrolysed a range of seaweed polysaccharides (fucoidan to a notably lesser degree) and homogenates of L.?hyperborea, mixed Fucus spp. and Ascophyllum nodosum to produce methane and acetate. The rumen microbiota and isolates represent potential adjunct organisms or enzymes which may improve hydrolysis of seaweed components and thus improve the efficiency of seaweed anaerobic digestion for methane biofuel production.
HubMed – eating


Promoting fruit and vegetable consumption: The role of message framing and autonomy.

Filed under: Eating Disorders

Br J Health Psychol. 2012 Nov 21;
Churchill S, Pavey L

OBJECTIVE: Previous studies have shown that gain-framed messages (vs. loss-framed messages) are more effective when advocating ‘low-risk’ prevention behaviours (e.g., diet, exercise, dental flossing) that minimize the risk of a health problem.The objective of the reported research was to explore whether autonomy moderated the effectiveness of gain-framed vs. loss-framed messages encouraging fruit and vegetable consumption. DESIGN: A prospective design was used for this study. METHOD: At time 1, participants (N = 177) completed a measure of autonomy and read either a gain-framed message (describing the benefits of fruit and vegetable consumption) or a loss-framed message (describing the disadvantages of not eating fruit and vegetables). At time 2, participants reported their fruit and vegetable consumption over the preceding 7 days. RESULTS: Autonomy moderated the effect of message framing. Gain-framed messages only prompted fruit and vegetable consumption amongst those with high levels of autonomy. CONCLUSION: The study identifies a key role for autonomy in shaping recipients’ responses to framed messages promoting fruit and vegetable consumption. STATEMENT OF CONTRIBUTION: What is already known on this subject? Previous studies have shown that gain-framed messages (vs. loss framed messages) are more effective when advocating low-risk prevention behaviours (e.g., diet, exercise, dental flossing) that minimize the risk of a health problem. What does this study add? The current study is the first to demonstrate that the success of a gain-framed message to promote fruit and vegetable consumption is dependent on recipients’ level of autonomy.
HubMed – eating


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