The Potential for Motivational Interviewing to Improve Outcomes in the Management of Diabetes and Obesity in Paediatric and Adult Populations: A Clinical Review.

The potential for motivational Interviewing to improve outcomes in the management of diabetes and obesity in paediatric and adult populations: A clinical review.

Diabetes Obes Metab. 2013 Aug 8;
Christie D, Channon S

Having good intentions to engage in healthy behaviours, to change our lives in a positive direction and make substantial, lasting changes may not always translate into actions or behaviour that is maintained. Motivational Interviewing is a directive person-centred approach designed to explore ambivalence and activate motivation for change(1) . A key component of a motivational interviewing conversation is to acknowledge that clients have every right to make no change. It uses a guiding communication style which invites people to consider their own situation and find their own solutions to situations that they identify as problematic that are preventing change. Motivational Interviewing was first introduced in adult health addiction services in the early 1980’s. It has developed in the physical health specialties, and in the last twenty years or so attention has turned to the potential of Motivational Interviewing in the paediatric setting and the challenges of using it with families with children at differing ages and developmental stages. This paper summarises studies published from 2006 -2011 of Motivational Interviewing in individuals across the lifespan with Type 1 and type 2 diabetes and obesity. HubMed – addiction

Morphine regulates Argonaute 2 and TH expression and activity but not miR-133b in midbrain dopaminergic neurons.

Addict Biol. 2013 Aug 8;
García-Pérez D, López-Bellido R, Hidalgo JM, Rodríguez RE, Laorden ML, Núñez C, Milanés MV

Epigenetic changes such as microRNAs (miRs)/Ago2-induced gene silencing represent complex molecular signature that regulate cellular plasticity. Recent studies showed involvement of miRs and Ago2 in drug addiction. In this study, we show that changes in gene expression induced by morphine and morphine withdrawal occur with concomitant epigenetic modifications in the mesolimbic dopaminergic (DA) pathway [ventral tegmental area (VTA)/nucleus accumbens (NAc) shell], which is critically involved in drug-induced dependence. We found that acute or chronic morphine administration as well as morphine withdrawal did not modify miR-133b messenger RNA (mRNA) expression in the VTA, whereas Ago2 protein levels were decreased and increased in morphine-dependent rats and after morphine withdrawal, respectively. These changes were paralleled with enhanced and decreased NAc tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) protein (an early DA marker) in morphine-dependent rats and after withdrawal, respectively. We also observed changes in TH mRNA expression in the VTA that could be related to Ago2-induced translational repression of TH mRNA during morphine withdrawal. However, the VTA number of TH-positive neurons suffered no alterations after the different treatment. Acute morphine administration produced a marked increase in TH activity and DA turnover in the NAc (shell). In contrast, precipitated morphine withdrawal decreased TH activation and did not change DA turnover. These findings provide new information into the possible correlation between Ago2/miRs complex regulation and DA neurons plasticity during opiate addiction. HubMed – addiction

Overlapping decline in orbitofrontal gray matter volume related to cocaine use and body mass index.

Addict Biol. 2013 Aug 8;
Smith DG, Jones PS, Williams GB, Bullmore ET, Robbins TW, Ersche KD

Loss of control over hedonically motivated actions is a defining component of impulse control disorders, such as drug dependence and the proposed ‘food addiction’ model of obesity. Devolution from goal-directed to compulsively maintained behaviors is partially attributed to abnormalities in the orbitofrontal cortex, an area critical in reward valuation. In the current study, overlapping reductions in orbitofrontal gray matter volume relating to body mass index were seen in healthy control and cocaine-dependent individuals, as well as in relation to duration of cocaine abuse, providing support for a shared neuropathology between the two conditions potentially related to dysfunctional reward-seeking behavior. HubMed – addiction