The Nature and Scope of Gambling in Canada.

The nature and scope of gambling in Canada.

Addiction. 2013 May 7;
Smith G

AIMS: This paper provides a historical review of gambling in Canada and examines the benefits and shortcomings of present-day Canadian gambling policies and practices. This includes a discussion of provincial and federal government roles in gambling regulation and an overview of problem gambling prevention and treatment initiatives. METHODS: The gambling studies literature was probed for pertinent information on factors such as historical development, legislative changes, economic conditions and cultural influences that have affected gambling participation and social responsibility strategies in Canada. RESULTS: Two major Criminal Code of Canada amendments (in 1969 and 1985) were pivotal in Canadian gambling expansion. The first decriminalized lotteries and casinos, while the second allowed electronic gambling devices and authorized provinces to operate and regulate gambling. These changes resulted in a radical gambling expansion which, in addition to raising provincial revenues, created public policy concerns. Varying provincial government interpretations of the ambiguous Criminal Code gambling statutes led to a lack of uniformity in how provinces regulate and operate gambling; when gambling expanded, there were no legislative safeguards in place to deal with the personal and societal effects of problem gambling. Subsequent programs designed to prevent and treat problem gambling have not been overly effective. CONCLUSIONS: Canadian provinces have a monopoly on gambling within their borders and treat the activity as a profit-driven business enterprise. Problems associated with widespread gambling such as addiction, increased crime, bankruptcy and suicide are seen as minor concerns and not addressed in an aggressive fashion. Given the Canadian federal government’s detachment from gambling policy and Canadian provinces’ heavy reliance on gambling revenues, little change in the Canadian gambling landscape is anticipated in the near future. HubMed – addiction


Kaye Middleton Fillmore, 1941-2013.

Addiction. 2013 May 7;
Roizen R

HubMed – addiction


Bridging the gap between science and public health: taking advantage of tobacco control experience in Brazil to inform policies to counter risk factors for non-communicable diseases.

Addiction. 2013 May 7;
da Costa E Silva VL, Pantani D, Andreis M, Sparks R, Pinsky I

AIMS AND DESIGN: The historical and economic involvement of Brazil with tobacco, as a major producer and exporter, was considered an insurmountable obstacle to controlling the consumption of this product. Nevertheless, the country was able to achieve significant progress in implementing public policies and to take an international leadership position, meeting its constitutional commitment to protect public health. In this paper we provide a brief historical overview of tobacco control (TC) in Brazil, and analyse the factors that contributed to the major decline in tobacco consumption in the country over the last 20 years, as well as identify the challenges that had to be overcome and those still at play. FINDINGS: The Brazilian case demonstrates how cross-sectorial collaborations among health-related groups that capitalize on their respective strengths and capacities can help to influence public policy and overcome industry and population resistance to change. Although Brazil still lags behind some leading TC nations, the country has an extensive collaborative TC network that was built over time and continues to focus upon this issue. CONCLUSIONS: The tobacco experience can serve as an example for other fields, such as alcoholic beverages, of how networks can be formed to influence the legislative process and the development of public policies. Brazilian statistics show that problems related to non-communicable diseases are a pressing public health issue, and advocacy groups, policy-makers and government departments can benefit from tobacco control history to fashion their own strategies. HubMed – addiction


Internet addiction assessment tools: dimensional structure and methodological status.

Addiction. 2013 May 7;
Lortie CL, Guitton MJ

AIMS: Excessive internet use is becoming a concern, and some have proposed that it may involve addiction. We evaluated the dimensions assessed by, and psychometric properties of, a range of questionnaires purporting to assess internet addiction. METHODS: Fourteen questionnaires were identified purporting to assess internet addiction among adolescents and adults published between January 1993 and October 2011. Their reported dimensional structure, construct, discriminant and convergent validity and reliability were assessed, as well as the methods used to derive these. RESULTS: Methods used to evaluate internet addiction questionnaires varied considerably. Three dimensions of addiction predominated: compulsive use (79%), negative outcomes (86%) and salience (71%). Less common were escapism (21%), withdrawal symptoms (36%) and other dimensions. Measures of validity and reliability were found to be within normally acceptable limits. CONCLUSIONS: There is a broad convergence of questionnaires purporting to assess internet addiction suggesting that compulsive use, negative outcome and salience should be covered and the questionnaires show adequate psychometric properties. However, the methods used to evaluate the questionnaires vary widely and possible factors contributing to excessive use such as social motivation do not appear to be covered. HubMed – addiction