The Influence of Depression on Physical Complications in Spinal Cord Injury: Behavioral Mechanisms and Health-Care Implications.

The influence of depression on physical complications in spinal cord injury: behavioral mechanisms and health-care implications.

Spinal Cord. 2013 Apr; 51(4): 260-6
Krueger H, Noonan VK, Williams D, Trenaman LM, Rivers CS

Study Design:This study is a literature review and a proposed conceptual model.Objectives:The objective of this study is to develop a conceptual model to explore the relationship between the presence of depressive symptoms and secondary physical complications such as pressure ulcers, urinary tract infections and autonomic dysreflexia in spinal cord injury (SCI).Setting:Community setting for individuals with SCI.Methods:A conceptual model explaining the mechanism underlying the relationship between depression and secondary physical SCI complications was developed based on the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF). A literature review was conducted to develop the model and to identify potential mechanisms responsible for the association.Results:A conceptual model based on ICF was created, informed by the literature discussing the link between depression and secondary physical SCI complications. Evidence in the literature was located that supports both a causal connection between depression and increased physical complications and/or the potential mechanisms mediating that connection.Conclusion:The proposed model can be utilized to encourage further research on the influence of depression on SCI outcomes and the importance of prompt and effective identification and treatment of depressive symptoms. Additional research is needed to assess the relationship between depression and secondary physical SCI complications, and to test the validity of the model. HubMed – depression


Challenges of today: at one side employment important for quality of life and to avoid depression; at the other side a worldwide economic crisis.

Spinal Cord. 2013 Apr; 51(4): 259
Wyndaele JJ

HubMed – depression


Acute and chronic traumatic encephalopathies: pathogenesis and biomarkers.

Nat Rev Neurol. 2013 Apr; 9(4): 192-200
Dekosky ST, Blennow K, Ikonomovic MD, Gandy S

Over the past decade, public awareness of the long-term pathological consequences of traumatic brain injury (TBI) has increased. Such awareness has been stimulated mainly by reports of progressive neurological dysfunction in athletes exposed to repetitive concussions in high-impact sports such as boxing and American football, and by the rising number of TBIs in war veterans who are now more likely to survive explosive blasts owing to improved treatment. Moreover, the entity of chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE)-which is marked by prominent neuropsychiatric features including dementia, parkinsonism, depression, agitation, psychosis, and aggression-has become increasingly recognized as a potential late outcome of repetitive TBI. Annually, about 1% of the population in developed countries experiences a clinically relevant TBI. The goal of this Review is to provide an overview of the latest understanding of CTE pathophysiology, and to delineate the key issues that are challenging clinical and research communities, such as accurate quantification of the risk of CTE, and development of reliable biomarkers for single-incident TBI and CTE. HubMed – depression


Long-Term Health-Related Quality of Life of Stroke Survivors and Their Spousal Caregivers.

J Neurosci Nurs. 2013 Apr 3;
Godwin KM, Ostwald SK, Cron SG, Wasserman J

Because treatment for stroke has improved, individuals are living longer with the effects of a stroke. The resulting long-term impairment can affect both stroke survivors’ and their caregivers’ health-related quality of life (HRQOL). Few studies have examined the HRQOL of stroke survivors and their caregivers greater than 2 years poststroke. The stroke survivors and their spousal caregivers (n = 30 dyads) who had previously completed a 12-month study after discharge from inpatient rehabilitation were assessed at 3-5 years poststroke. The HRQOL and related outcomes were measured for stroke survivors and caregivers. Data from baseline to 12 months were used in conjunction with data from this study. Linear mixed models were used to analyze the change in repeated measures over time. Multiple linear regression was used to analyze the relationship of generic HRQOL to related psychosocial outcomes. The stroke survivors were an average of 4.68 years poststroke. The mean age for stroke survivors and caregivers was 70.8 and 64.9 years, respectively. Most stroke survivors were men (80%) and non-Hispanic White (70%). Among stroke survivors, depression decreased from baseline to 12 months (p = .04) but increased from 12 months to the end of follow-up (p = .003). The caregivers’ depression decreased from baseline to all time points (p = .015). Stroke-specific HRQOL showed statistically significant (p < .03) decreases between 12 months and end of follow-up. Increased number of illnesses and older age were associated with caregivers' lower physical HRQOL score (p = .004). Higher depression was associated with lower mental HRQOL score for both caregivers and stroke survivors (p = .003 and p = .011, respectively). Both stroke survivors and caregivers continue to experience negative stroke-related health outcomes for many years after the initial stroke; some of these outcomes even worsen over time. These findings illustrate the need for ongoing psychological and medical evaluation for both long-term stroke survivors and caregivers. Development and testing of targeted behavioral interventions are also warranted. HubMed – depression