The Impact of Parental Incarceration on the Physical and Mental Health of Young Adults.

The Impact of Parental Incarceration on the Physical and Mental Health of Young Adults.

Pediatrics. 2013 Mar 18;
Lee RD, Fang X, Luo F

OBJECTIVES:We investigated the relationship between parental incarceration history and young adult physical and mental health outcomes using Wave 1 and Wave 4 data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health.METHODS:Dependent variables included self-reported fair/poor health and health diagnoses. The independent variable was parental incarceration history. Cross-tabulations and logistic regression models were run.RESULTS:Positive, significant associations were found between parental incarceration and 8 of 16 health problems (depression, posttraumatic stress disorder, anxiety, cholesterol, asthma, migraines, HIV/AIDS, and fair/poor health) in adjusted logistic regression models. Those who reported paternal incarceration had increased odds of 8 mental and physical health problems, whereas those who reported maternal incarceration had increased odds of depression. For paternal incarceration, with the exception of HIV/AIDS, larger associations were found for mental health (odds ratios range 1.43-1.72) as compared with physical health (odds ratios range 1.26-1.31) problems. The association between paternal incarceration and HIV/AIDs should be interpreted with caution because of the low sample prevalence of HIV/AIDs.CONCLUSIONS:This study suggests exposure to parental incarceration in childhood is associated with health problems in young adulthood. Extant literature suggests underlying mechanisms that link parental incarceration history to poor outcomes in offspring may include the lack of safe, stable, nurturing relationships and exposure to violence. To prevent poor health in offspring of the incarcerated, additional studies are needed to (1) confirm the aforementioned associations and (2) assess whether adverse experiences and violence exposure in childhood mediate the relationship between parental incarceration history and offspring health problems. HubMed – depression


Reciprocity Between Depressive Symptoms and Physical Limitations Pre- and Postretirement: Exploring Racial Differences.

J Aging Health. 2013 Mar 17;
Gayman MD, Pai M, Kail BL, Taylor MG

OBJECTIVE: This study assesses (a) the reciprocity between mental and physical health pre- and postretirement, and (b) the extent to which these associations vary by race. METHOD: Data are from the 1994 to 2008 waves of the Health and Retirement Study. RESULTS: Analyses based on structural equation modeling reveal that depression and physical health exert reciprocal effects for Whites pre- and postretirement. For Blacks preretirement, physical limitations predict changes in depression but there is no evidence of the reverse association. Further, the association between physical limitations and changes in depressive symptoms among Blacks is no longer significant after retirement. DISCUSSION: The transition into retirement alleviates the translation of physical limitations into depressive symptoms for Blacks only. The findings underscore the relevance of retirement for reciprocity between mental and physical health and suggest that the health implications associated with this life course transition vary by race. HubMed – depression


Measuring Use of Positive Thinking Skills: Psychometric Testing of a New Scale.

West J Nurs Res. 2013 Mar 18;
Bekhet AK, Zauszniewski JA

Positive thinking interventions improve adaptive functioning and quality of life in many populations. However, no direct measure of positive thinking skills taught during intervention exists. This psychometric study of a convenience sample of 109 autism spectrum disorder (ASD) caregivers examined a new eight-item Positive Thinking Skills Scale (PTSS), which measures the frequency of use of positive thinking skills. The PTSS was found to be internally consistent (? = .90). Construct validity was supported by significant correlations (p < .01) with positive cognitions (r = .53), resourcefulness (r = .63), depression (r = -.45), and general well-being (r = .40). The findings support use of the PTSS as a potential indicator of intervention fidelity among ASD caregivers. However, because it is not specific for ASD caregivers, the PTSS has the potential for wider usage in other populations for whom the identification of specific positive thinking skills could provide direction for future intervention. HubMed – depression


Affective Trajectories Before and After a Quit Attempt in Smokers With Current Depressive Disorders.

Nicotine Tob Res. 2013 Mar 18;
Mathew AR, Robinson JD, Norton PJ, Cinciripini PM, Brown RA, Blalock JA

BACKGROUND: Smoking cessation for individuals with depressive disorders represents an important clinical issue. It often has been hypothesized that smoking cessation worsens negative affect as part of the withdrawal process in this population. However, studies examining the impact of smoking cessation on changes in affect in smokers with depression are limited and equivocal. METHODS: This study examines affective processes in smokers with depression undergoing a 12-week smoking cessation intervention (N = 49). We used the Positive and Negative Affect Scale to measure participants’ positive affect (PA) and negative affect (NA) trajectories over the course of a quit attempt. We examined whether affective treatment response across the trial differed by prolonged smoking abstinence status and whether postquit affect differed by prequit affective treatment response, as well as the interaction of prequit affective response and abstinence status. RESULTS: Prolonged abstainers showed significant increases in PA over the course of a quit attempt compared with nonabstainers. Prequit affective trajectories significantly predicted postquit affect for measures of both PA and NA. Lastly, the interaction of prequit affective trajectory and abstinence significantly predicted postquit levels of NA but not PA. CONCLUSIONS: This study adds to a burgeoning body of research demonstrating that significant improvements in psychological functioning can be observed among those who successfully quit smoking even in the most severe psychiatric group. HubMed – depression