The Genetics of Eating Disorders.

The genetics of eating disorders.

Annu Rev Clin Psychol. 2013 Mar 28; 9: 589-620
Trace SE, Baker JH, Peñas-Lledó E, Bulik CM

Over the past decade, considerable advances have been made in understanding genetic influences on eating pathology. Eating disorders aggregate in families, and twin studies reveal that additive genetic factors account for approximately 40% to 60% of liability to anorexia nervosa (AN), bulimia nervosa (BN), and binge eating disorder (BED). Molecular genetics studies have been undertaken to identify alterations in deoxyribonucleic acid sequence and/or gene expression that may be involved in the pathogenesis of disordered eating behaviors, symptoms, and related disorders and to uncover potential genetic variants that may contribute to variability of treatment response. This article provides an in-depth review of the scientific literature on the genetics of AN, BN, and BED including extant studies, emerging hypotheses, future directions, and clinical implications. HubMed – eating


An outbreak of norovirus gastroenteritis associated with a secondary water supply system in a factory in south China.

BMC Public Health. 2013 Mar 28; 13(1): 283
Li Y, Guo H, Xu Z, Zhou X, Zhang H, Zhang L, Miao J, Pan Y

BACKGROUND: Between September 17 and October 3, 2009, the hundreds of workers employed in a manufacturing factory in Shenzhen, a city in south China developed a sudden onset of acute gastroenteritis. A retrospective cohort study is designed to identify the risk factors and control this outbreak. METHODS: Information on demographic characteristics, working place, the history of contact with a person having diarrhea and/or vomiting, drink water preference and frequency, eating in the company cafeteria or outside the company, hand-washing habits and eating habits. Furthermore, in order to find the contamination source, we investigated the environment around the underground reservoir and collected water samples from the junction between municipal supply water system and underground reservoir to test potential bacteria and virus, examine the seepage tracks on the wall of the underground reservoir from the side of septic tank, and check the integrity and attitude of this lid. Relative risk was presented and Chi-square test was performed. All the analyses were performed with OpenEpi software version 2.3.1 online. RESULTS: The cohort study demonstrated that the workers who had direct drink water were 3.0 fold more likely to suffer from acute gastroenteritis than those who consumed commercial bottled water. The direct drinking water, water of the tank of buildings, and the underground reservoir were positive only for norovirus. Norovirus was also detected from stool and rectal swab samples from patients with acute gastroenteritis. The underground reservoir was found to be the primary contamination source. Further environmental investigation showed that the norovirus contaminated substance entered into the underground reservoir via access holes in lid covering this underground reservoir. CONCLUSION: This acute gastroenteritis outbreak was caused by the secondary supply system contaminated by norovirus in this factory. The outbreak of gastroenteritis cases caused by norovirus frequently occurred in China due to a lack of surveillance and supervision, and due to faults in the construction of such water systems. Therefore, more attentions should pay to the secondary supply water system in China. HubMed – eating


Role Of Brain NUBC2/Nesfatin-1 In The Regulation Of Food Intake.

Curr Pharm Des. 2013 Mar 25;
Stengel A, Taché Y

Nesfatin-1 was recently identified in the rat brain as a potential post-translational processing product derived from nucleobindin2 (NUCB2). The first biological action identified for nesfatin-1 was the reduction of nocturnal food intake in rats. The anorexigenic effect of nesfatin-1 was corroborated by several independent laboratories and is now established as a physiological action of this peptide based on the regulation of brain NUCB2/nesfatin-1 under different metabolic conditions and the stimulation of food intake and body weight when endogenous NUCB2/nesfatin-1 is blocked. Nesfatin-1 shows extensive co-localization with various other, predominantly food intake inhibitory, hypothalamic peptides including corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF), oxytocin, cholecystokinin, pro-opiomelanocortin, ?-melanocyte stimulating hormone (?-MSH), thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH), the orexigenic neuropeptide Y and brain biogenic amines, histamine, serotonin, and catecholamines. The food intake suppressing effect of centrally injected nesfatin-1 has been established so far to involve several downstream mechanisms including H1, CRF2, TRH2, oxytocin as well as melanocortin-3/4 receptor signaling pathways. This intricate embedding of NUCB2/nesfatin-1 in central food intake regulatory pathways recruited during the dark phase corresponding to the eating period in rodents, unlike the orexigenic response to a fast, points towards a role for nesfatin-1 in modulating the nocturnal food intake. Although our knowledge on the regulation and effects of NUCB2/nesfatin-1 as a new anorexic peptide markedly increased during the past five years, several important gaps of knowledge remain to be filled in the near future such as the regulation of NUCB2 processing and nesfatin-1 release as well as the identification, localization and regulation of the nesfatin-1 receptor. HubMed – eating