The Effects of Periconceptional Risk Factor Exposure and Micronutrient Supplementation on Birth Defects in Shaanxi Province in Western China.

The effects of periconceptional risk factor exposure and micronutrient supplementation on birth defects in shaanxi province in Western china.

Filed under: Drug and Alcohol Rehabilitation

PLoS One. 2012; 7(12): e53429
Yang W, Zeng L, Cheng Y, Chen Z, Wang X, Li X, Yan H

1) To understand the current prevalence and main types of birth defects, 2) assess the periconceptional exposure of factors associated with birth defects in Shaanxi Province, and 3) provide scientific evidence for local governments to formulate services for the primary prevention of birth defects.We sampled 16,541 households from 128 townships in 16 counties/districts in Shaanxi province using a multi-stage random sampling method. Among them, 10,544 women who had live born or stillborn infants with gestational age ?28 weeks between 2008 and 2009 were interviewed using a structured questionnaire designed to collect information about periconceptional risk factor exposure, health care service utilization, and micronutrient supplements. Logistic regression was performed to assess the risk factors associated with birth defects and adjustments were made for imbalanced social-demographic characteristics between case and control groups.The prevalence of congenital birth defect in Shaanxi province was 14.3/1000 births. The environment risk factors associated with birth defects include unhealthy lifestyle (Alcohol, odds ratio (OR): 3.60, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.64-7.91; Smoking, OR: 1.32, 95% CI: 0.99-1.75; Drink strong tea, OR: 1.81, 95% CI: 1.27-2.59), exposure to heavy pollution (OR: 1.53, 95% CI: 1.01-2.30), maternal diseases (OR: 1.77, 95% CI: 1.35-2.33), drug use (OR: 2.11, 95% CI: 1.51-2.95), maternal chemical pesticide exposure (OR: 2.30, 95% CI: 1.16-4.57), and adverse pregnancy history (OR: 10.10, 95% CI: 7.55-13.53). Periconceptional folic acid or multiple micronutrients including folic acid supplementation, was associated with a reduced rate of birth defects (OR: 0.54, 95% CI: 0.29-0.998).Health care service utilization, unhealthy lifestyle factors, and environment risk factors seem to be associated with birth defects in Shaanxi province. Governmental agencies should focus on effective primary preventative methods, such as the delivery of periconceptional health education for minimizing potential risk factor exposures, periconceptional folic acid or micronutrient supplementation, environment monitoring, and assessment of factories with high levels of pollution.
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Diclofenac prolongs repolarization in ventricular muscle with impaired repolarization reserve.

Filed under: Drug and Alcohol Rehabilitation

PLoS One. 2012; 7(12): e53255
Kristóf A, Husti Z, Koncz I, Kohajda Z, Szél T, Juhász V, Biliczki P, Jost N, Baczkó I, Papp JG, Varró A, Virág L

The aim of the present work was to characterize the electrophysiological effects of the non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug diclofenac and to study the possible proarrhythmic potency of the drug in ventricular muscle.Ion currents were recorded using voltage clamp technique in canine single ventricular cells and action potentials were obtained from canine ventricular preparations using microelectrodes. The proarrhythmic potency of the drug was investigated in an anaesthetized rabbit proarrhythmia model.Action potentials were slightly lengthened in ventricular muscle but were shortened in Purkinje fibers by diclofenac (20 µM). The maximum upstroke velocity was decreased in both preparations. Larger repolarization prolongation was observed when repolarization reserve was impaired by previous BaCl(2) application. Diclofenac (3 mg/kg) did not prolong while dofetilide (25 µg/kg) significantly lengthened the QT(c) interval in anaesthetized rabbits. The addition of diclofenac following reduction of repolarization reserve by dofetilide further prolonged QT(c). Diclofenac alone did not induce Torsades de Pointes ventricular tachycardia (TdP) while TdP incidence following dofetilide was 20%. However, the combination of diclofenac and dofetilide significantly increased TdP incidence (62%). In single ventricular cells diclofenac (30 µM) decreased the amplitude of rapid (I(Kr)) and slow (I(Ks)) delayed rectifier currents thereby attenuating repolarization reserve. L-type calcium current (I(Ca)) was slightly diminished, but the transient outward (I(to)) and inward rectifier (I(K1)) potassium currents were not influenced.Diclofenac at therapeutic concentrations and even at high dose does not prolong repolarization markedly and does not increase the risk of arrhythmia in normal heart. However, high dose diclofenac treatment may lengthen repolarization and enhance proarrhythmic risk in hearts with reduced repolarization reserve.
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Identification of Novel Imidazo[1,2-a]pyridine Inhibitors Targeting M. tuberculosis QcrB.

Filed under: Drug and Alcohol Rehabilitation

PLoS One. 2012; 7(12): e52951
Abrahams KA, Cox JA, Spivey VL, Loman NJ, Pallen MJ, Constantinidou C, Fernández R, Alemparte C, Remuiñán MJ, Barros D, Ballell L, Besra GS

Mycobacterium tuberculosis is a major human pathogen and the causative agent for the pulmonary disease, tuberculosis (TB). Current treatment programs to combat TB are under threat due to the emergence of multi-drug and extensively-drug resistant TB. Through the use of high throughput whole cell screening of an extensive compound library a number of imidazo[1,2-a]pyridine (IP) compounds were obtained as potent lead molecules active against M. tuberculosis and Mycobacterium bovis BCG. The IP inhibitors (1-4) demonstrated minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) in the range of 0.03 to 5 µM against a panel of M. tuberculosis strains. M. bovis BCG spontaneous resistant mutants were generated against IP 1, 3, and 4 at 5× MIC and subsequent whole genome sequencing identified a single nucleotide polymorphism (937)ACC>(937)GCC (T313A) in qcrB, which encodes the b subunit of the electron transport ubiquinol cytochrome C reductase. This mutation also conferred cross-resistance against IP 1, 3 and 4 demonstrating a common target. Gene dosage experiments confirmed M. bovis BCG QcrB as the target where over-expression in M. bovis BCG led to an increase in MIC from 0.5 to >8 µM for IP 3. An acute murine model of TB infection established bacteriostatic activity of the IP series, which await further detailed characterization.
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