The Effects of Extended Release Niacin on Lipoprotein Sub-Particle Concentrations in HIV-Infected Patients.

The Effects of Extended Release Niacin on Lipoprotein Sub-Particle Concentrations in HIV-Infected Patients.

Hawaii J Med Public Health. 2013 Apr; 72(4): 123-7
Lin C, Grandinetti A, Shikuma C, Souza S, Parikh N, Nakamoto B, Kallianpur KJ, Chow D

With the advent of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART), Cardiovascular Disease (CVD) has emerged as the leading cause of death in Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) infected patients. An atherogenic lipoprotein phenotype has been described in HIV- infected patients with a predominance of small, low density lipoprotein (SLDL) particles with accompanying elevated triglycerides and reduced high density lipoprotein cholesterol. This randomized controlled pilot study was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of Extended Release Niacin (ERN) in improving the lipid profile in HIV patients. A total of 17 HIV positive subjects on HAART therapy with High Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol (HDL) levels below 40mg/dl and Low Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol (LDL) below 130mg/dl were enrolled. Nine were randomized to be treated with ERN titrated from a starting level of 500mg/night and titrated to a level of 1500mg/night. Eight patients were assigned to the control arm. No placebo was used. Lipoprotein profiles of the subjects were analyzed at baseline and at the end of 12 weeks using Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. At the end of 12 weeks, NMR spectroscopic analysis revealed a significant increase in overall LDL size (1.2% in ERN treated subjects vs 2.0% decrease in control patients, P=.04) and a decrease in small LDL particle concentration (17.0% in ERN treated subjects vs 21.4% increase in control patients, P=.03) in subjects receiving ERN as compared to those in the control group. Only 1 subject receiving ERN developed serious flushing which was attributed to an accidental overdose of the drug. This pilot study demonstrates that ERN therapy in HIV-infected patients with low HDL is safe and effective in improving the lipoprotein profile in these patients. HubMed – drug


Synthesis, Activity and Metabolic Stability of Non-Ribose Containing Inhibitors of Histone Methyltransferase DOT1L.

Medchemcomm. 2013 May 1; 4(5): 822-826
Deng L, Zhang L, Yao Y, Wang C, Redell MS, Dong S, Song Y

Histone methyltransferase DOT1L is a drug target for MLL leukemia. We report an efficient synthesis of a cyclopentane-containing compound that potently and selectively inhibits DOT1L (Ki = 1.1 nM) as well as H3K79 methylation (IC50 ~ 200 nM). Importantly, this compound exhibits a high stability in plasma and liver microsomes, suggesting it is a better drug candidate. HubMed – drug


Lenalidomide in combination with dexamethasone in elderly patients with advanced, relapsed or refractory multiple myeloma and renal failure.

Mediterr J Hematol Infect Dis. 2013; 5(1): e2013037
Tosi P, Gamberi B, Castagnari B, Molinari AL, Savini P, Ceccolini M, Tani M, Merli A, Imola M, Mianulli AM, Cellini C, Tomassetti S, Merli F, Fattori P, Zaccaria A

Salvage therapy of elderly patients with advanced, relapsed and refractory multiple myeloma (MM) is often limited by poor marrow reserve and multi-organ impairment. In particular, renal failure occurs in up to 50% of such patients, and this can potentially limit the therapeutic options. Both thalidomide and bortezomib have proven effective in these patients, with an acceptable toxicity, while, in clinical practice, lenalidomide is generally not considered a first-choice drug for MM patients with renal failure as early reports showed an increased hematological toxicity unless appropriate dose reduction is applied. Aim of this study was a retrospective evaluation of the efficacy of the combination Lenalidomide + Dexamethasone in a population of elderly MM patients treated in 5 Italian Centers. The study included 20 consecutive MM patients (9 M, 11 F, median age 76.5 years) with relapsed (N= 6) or refractory (N=13) MM and moderate to severe renal failure, defined as creatinine clearance (Cr Cl) < 50ml/min. Four patients were undergoing hemodyalisis at study entry. 85 % of the patients had been previously treated with bortezomib-containing regimens. Lenalidomide dose was adjusted according to renal function and patients clinical conditions Median treatment duration was 16 months (1-22), therapy was interrupted after 1 21-day cycle in 2 patients. Grade III-IV neutropenia was observed in 7 patients (35%); grade III-IV non hematological toxicity was recorded in 3 cases (28%). A > partial response was observed in 8 patients (40%), 1 of whom obtained a VGPR; 4 additional patients achieved a minor response. Median response duration was 16 months (range 2-19+ months). A complete and partial renal response was obtained in 4 and 3 patients, respectively, all of them were responsive to Lenalidomide-dexamethasone According to our data, LEN+DEX has shown efficacy and acceptable toxicity in this population of elderly patients with advanced MM and renal failure. HubMed – drug


Antimalarial and Structural Studies of Pyridine-containing Inhibitors of 1-Deoxyxylulose-5-phosphate Reductoisomerase.

ACS Med Chem Lett. 2013 Feb 14; 4(2): 278-282
Xue J, Diao J, Cai G, Deng L, Zheng B, Yao Y, Song Y

1-Deoxy-D-xylulose-5-phosphate reductoisomerase (DXR) in the non-mevalonate isoprene biosynthesis pathway is a target for developing antimalarial drugs. Fosmidomycin, a potent DXR inhibitor, showed safety as well as efficacy against P. falciparum malaria in clinical trials. Based on our previous quantitative structure activity relationship (QSAR) and crystallographic studies, several novel pyridine-containing fosmidomycin derivatives were designed, synthesized and found to be highly potent inhibitors of P. falciparum DXR (PfDXR) having Ki values of 1.9 – 13 nM, with the best one being ~11× more active than fosmidomycin. These compounds also potently block the proliferation of multi-drug resistant P. falciparum with EC50 values as low as 170 nM. A 2.3 Å crystal structure of PfDXR in complex with one of the inhibitors is reported, showing the flexible loop of the protein undergoes conformational changes upon ligand binding and a hydrogen bond and favorable hydrophobic interactions between the pyridine group and PfDXR account for the enhanced activity. HubMed – drug