The Effect of Participating in a Trauma- and Stressful Event-Focused Study.

The Effect of Participating in a Trauma- and Stressful Event-Focused Study.

J Clin Psychol. 2013 Jul 22;
Larsen SE, Berenbaum H

Researchers have increasingly examined whether participants who have experienced a traumatic event should be considered vulnerable research populations. Studies have typically asked participants in trauma-focused research whether they were upset by the study or perceived any benefit from it. The current study extends such research by measuring mood and exploring potential moderators of the impact of study participation.Participants were 107 women who experienced a traumatic or stressful event and completed an event-focused research protocol. Negative affect was measured, using the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule, at the time of the study and 1 week later.Participants reported significantly lower levels of negative affect in the week after the study than before it. Decreases in negative affect were greatest for those with highest levels of depression at the time of interview.Participation in a trauma- or stressful-event-focused study is not harmful and may even be beneficial, especially among depressed participants. HubMed – depression

Routine screening for suicidal intention in patients with cancer.

Psychooncology. 2013 Jul 22;
Leung YW, Li M, Devins G, Zimmermann C, Rydall A, Lo C, Rodin G

Suicide rates are elevated in individuals with cancer, although suicidal intention is not typically assessed in cancer centers. We evaluated in a large comprehensive cancer center the utility of an electronic Distress Assessment and Response Tool (DART), in which suicidal intention is assessed with a single item.Patients attending cancer clinics completed DART as part of routine care. DART includes measures of physical symptoms, depression, anxiety, social difficulties, and practical concerns. Medical variables were obtained from the Princess Margaret Cancer Registry, the data warehouse of cancer patient statistics. A Generalized Estimating Equation (GEE) model was used to assess factors associated with suicidal intention.Between September 2009 and March 2012, 4822/5461 patients (88.3%) who completed DART consented to the use of their data for research. Amongst the latter, 280 (5.9%) of the 4775 patients who answered the question reported suicidal ideation, which was related to physical and psychological distress, and social difficulties (ps?HubMed – depression

Hippocampal long-term depression in freely behaving mice requires the activation of beta-adrenergic receptors.

Hippocampus. 2013 Jul 23;
Goh JJ, Manahan-Vaughan D

In the intact mouse hippocampus patterned afferent stimulation does not lead to long-term depression (LTD) at Schaffer collateral (Sc)-CA1 synapses, but the same synapses express robust LTD (<24 h) if test-pulse or patterned afferent experience is coupled with novel spatial learning. This suggests that the failure of sole afferent stimulation to elicit LTD relates to the absence of neuromodulatory input related to increased arousal or novelty during learning. Locus coeruleus (LC) firing increases during novel experience, and in rats patterned stimulation of the LC together with test-pulse stimulation of Sc-CA1 synapses leads to robust LTD in vivo. This effect is mediated by beta-adrenergic receptors. Here, we explored if activation of beta-adrenergic receptors supports the expression of LTD in freely behaving mice. We also explored if beta-adrenergic receptors contribute to endogenous LTD that is expressed following spatial learning. Patterned stimulation of Sc-CA1 synapses at 3 Hz (200 pulses) resulted in short-term depression (STD). Pretreatment with isoproterenol, an agonist of beta-adrenergic receptors, resulted in robust LTD (<24 h). Test-pulse stimulation under controls conditions elicited field potentials that were stable for the 24-h monitoring period. Coupling of test-pulses with a novel spatial object recognition task resulted in robust endogenous LTD (<24 h). Pretreatment with propranolol, a beta-adrenergic receptor antagonist, completely prevented endogenous LTD that was enabled by learning and prevented object recognition learning itself. These data indicate that the absence of LTD in freely behaving mice, under standard recording conditions, does not reflect an inability of mice to express LTD, rather it is due to the absence of an noradrenalin tonus. Our data also support that spatial object recognition requires beta-adrenergic receptor activation. Furthermore, LTD that is enabled by novel spatial learning critically depends on activation of beta-adrenergic receptors that are presumably activated by noradrenalin released by the LC in response to the novel experience. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. HubMed – depression