The Effect of 2 Different Single Injections of High Dose of Vitamin D on Improving the Depression in Depressed Patients With Vitamin D Deficiency: A Randomized Clinical Trial.

The Effect of 2 Different Single Injections of High Dose of Vitamin D on Improving the Depression in Depressed Patients With Vitamin D Deficiency: A Randomized Clinical Trial.

J Clin Psychopharmacol. 2013 Apr 19;
Mozaffari-Khosravi H, Nabizade L, Yassini-Ardakani SM, Hadinedoushan H, Barzegar K

The correlation between vitamin D deficiency and depression has recently been put forward and resulted in controversial findings. The present study was conducted to find out the effect of 2 single injections of 150,000 and 300,000 IU of vitamin D on improving the depression in depressed patients with vitamin D deficiency.This clinical trial study was carried out during 2011-2012 in Yazd, Islamic Republic of Iran. A total of 120 patients who had a Beck Depression Inventory II score of 17+ and were affected with vitamin D deficiency were randomly assigned to 3 groups of 40. They included G300, G150, and NTG. G300 and G150 received an intramuscular single dose of 300,000 and 150,000 IU of vitamin D, respectively, and the NTG group received nothing. After 3 months of intervention, the depression state, serum vitamin D, calcium, phosphorus, and parathormone were measured.The median of serum vitamin D after intervention were 60.2, 54.6, and 28.2 nmol/L (P < 0.001) for the G300, G150, and NTG, respectively. Percentages of vitamin D deficiency after intervention were 18, 20, and 91.2 for the groups, respectively. The serum calcium mean showed a statistically significant increase in just the 2 test groups receiving vitamin D. There was only significant difference in mean of Beck Depression Inventory II test score between G300 and NTG (P = 0.003).The results of the study revealed that first, the correction of vitamin D deficiency improved the depression state, and second, a single injection dose of 300,000 IU of vitamin D was safe and more effective than a 150,000-IU dose. HubMed – depression


Effectiveness and Mood Conversion Rate of Short-Term Fluoxetine Monotherapy in Patients With Rapid Cycling Bipolar II Depression Versus Patients With Nonrapid Cycling Bipolar II Depression.

J Clin Psychopharmacol. 2013 Apr 19;
Amsterdam JD, Luo L, Shults J

OBJECTIVE: We examined the effectiveness and mood conversion rate of fluoxetine monotherapy in patients with rapid cycling bipolar II depression versus patients with nonrapid cycling bipolar II depression. We hypothesized that there would be reduced antidepressant effectiveness and a greater mood conversion rate over time in patients with rapid cycling. METHODS: Open-label fluoxetine monotherapy 10 to 80 mg daily was administered for up to 14 weeks in 42 outpatients with rapid cycling versus 124 outpatients with nonrapid cycling. Outcome measures included the change over time in depression ratings, the proportion of treatment responders and remitters, change over time in mania ratings, and frequency of syndromal and subsyndromal hypomanic episodes. RESULTS: There was a greater reduction in depression rating scores in the patients with rapid cycling versus those with nonrapid cycling (P = 0.04), with similar rates of response (P = 0.18) and remission (P = 0.69). Change in mean mania rating scores was similar in the patients with rapid cycling versus those with nonrapid cycling (P = 0.28). Hypomanic symptoms occurred in a similar proportion of the patients with rapid cycling versus those with nonrapid cycling (P = 0.99). Hypomanic episodes occurred in 5.4% (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.7-18.2) of the patients with rapid cycling versus 3.6% (95% CI, 1.0-8.9) of those with nonrapid cycling (P = 0.65). Subsyndromal hypomania occurred in 13.5% (95% CI, 4.5-28.8) of the patients with rapid cycling versus 9.0% (95% CI, 4.4-15.9) of those with nonrapid cycling (P = 0.43). CONCLUSION: In contrast to reports of reduced effectiveness and increased mood conversion rates in patients with rapid cycling bipolar disorder taking antidepressants, we found greater effectiveness and similar hypomania rates during fluoxetine monotherapy in the patients with rapid cycling bipolar II depression versus those with nonrapid cycling bipolar II depression. HubMed – depression


Memantine Add-On to Risperidone for Treatment of Negative Symptoms in Patients With Stable Schizophrenia: Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Study.

J Clin Psychopharmacol. 2013 Apr 19;
Rezaei F, Mohammad-Karimi M, Seddighi S, Modabbernia A, Ashrafi M, Salehi B, Hammidi S, Motasami H, Hajiaghaee R, Tabrizi M, Akhondzadeh S

We aimed to evaluate the efficacy of memantine add-on in the treatment of primary negative symptoms of patients with stable schizophrenia. In a double-blind placebo-controlled clinical trial, 40 patients with schizophrenia (Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition) who were stabilized on risperidone for a minimum of 8 weeks were randomized to either memantine (20 mg) or placebo in addition to risperidone, 6 mg/d, for eight weeks. Assessment was done using the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale at baseline, week 4, and week 8. The Hamilton Depression Rating Scale and the Extrapyramidal Symptom Rating Scale at baseline and week 8 were used to assess depression and extrapyramidal symptoms, respectively. All 40 patients had at least one postbaseline measurement, and 38 patients completed the trial. Patients in the memantine group showed a significantly greater improvement on negative subscale than the placebo group at end point (P < 0.001). The same effect was observed for the total score (P < 0.001) and the general psychopathology subscale score (P = 0.002). There was no significant difference in reduction of positive symptoms score between the 2 groups (P = 0.757). Changes in the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale and the Extrapyramidal Symptom Rating Scale scores and frequency of adverse effects did not differ between the 2 groups. Our study showed that memantine is a tolerable and efficacious add-on treatment for primary negative symptoms of schizophrenia. HubMed – depression


Trait Anxiety Levels Before and After Antidepressant Treatment: A 3-Wave Cohort Study.

J Clin Psychopharmacol. 2013 Apr 19;
Nabi H, Virtanen M, Singh-Manoux A, Hagger-Johnson G, Pentti J, Kivimäki M, Vahtera J

The aim of this study was to examine change in “trait anxiety” levels assessed repeatedly before and after antidepressant treatment in a large cohort of men and women. A total of 18,732 participants of the Finnish Public Sector Study with no initial record of depression or self-reported doctor diagnosis of depression completed the short form of the Spielberger Trait-Anxiety Inventory in 2000-2002 (T1), 2004-2005 (T2), and 2008-2009 (T3). We used prescription data from the nationwide Drug Prescription Register to identify antidepressant treatment between T1 and T2 (n = 710). Both men (? = 0.435, P < 0.001) and women (? = 0.300, P < 0.001) who received antidepressant treatment had higher trait anxiety levels at T1. Mixed models analyses of repeated measures showed a small but statistically significant decrease in trait anxiety scores for the overall sample of men (? = 0.023, P = 0.033) and women (? = 0.011, P = 0.031) between T1 and T3. The interaction term between time and antidepressant treatment status suggested a greater decrease in trait anxiety levels among men receiving antidepressant treatment, with an adjusted excess decrease in mean trait anxiety scores of 0.163 (P = 0.012) between T1 and T3. We found some evidence suggesting that this is also the case in women, although the evidence in our data was less consistent for women. This large-scale study provides evidence suggesting that antidepressant treatment is associated with a reduction in trait anxiety levels, particularly in men. HubMed – depression


Prevalence and associated factors of depressive symptoms among Chinese male correctional officers.

Int Arch Occup Environ Health. 2013 Apr 23;
Sui GY, Hu S, Sun W, Wang Y, Liu L, Yang XS, Wang L

OBJECTIVES: Chinese correctional officers (COs) consist of frontline COs in direct contact with the prisoners and non-frontline COs (including administrative staff and professionals). Male COs compose the majority of Chinese COs, especially for frontline COs. Although they are quite susceptible to depressive symptoms due to highly risky and stressful working environment, few studies focus on this issue. This study aimed to evaluate the prevalence of depressive symptoms and to explore its associated factors among Chinese male frontline and non-frontline COs. METHODS: This cross-sectional study was performed during the period of March/April 2011. The study population comprised of 1,900 male COs in four male prisons in a province of northeast China. A questionnaire including the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale, demographic factors, work conditions, effort-reward imbalance questionnaire was distributed to these COs. A total of 1,494 effective respondents became our subjects (981 frontline COs and 513 non-frontline COs). Frontline and non-frontline COs were analyzed separately. RESULTS: Approximately 61.4 % of Chinese male COs had depressive symptoms (63.5 % in frontline COs and 57.3 % in non-frontline COs). Multivariate logistic analyses showed that effort-reward ratio, overcommitment, chronic disease, and threat perception were associated with depressive symptoms in frontline and non-frontline COs, whereas weekly work time had an effect only in frontline COs. CONCLUSIONS: Chinese male COs, especially frontline COs, might have high-level prevalence of depressive symptoms. Moreover, this study had identified important risk factors that might be important in planning strategies for prevention and intervention of depressive symptoms for Chinese male COs. HubMed – depression