The Development of Indonesian Online Game Addiction Questionnaire.

The development of indonesian online game addiction questionnaire.

PLoS One. 2013; 8(4): e61098
Jap T, Tiatri S, Jaya ES, Suteja MS

Online game is an increasingly popular source of entertainment for all ages, with relatively prevalent negative consequences. Addiction is a problem that has received much attention. This research aims to develop a measure of online game addiction for Indonesian children and adolescents. The Indonesian Online Game Addiction Questionnaire draws from earlier theories and research on the internet and game addiction. Its construction is further enriched by including findings from qualitative interviews and field observation to ensure appropriate expression of the items. The measure consists of 7 items with a 5-point Likert Scale. It is validated by testing 1,477 Indonesian junior and senior high school students from several schools in Manado, Medan, Pontianak, and Yogyakarta. The validation evidence is shown by item-total correlation and criterion validity. The Indonesian Online Game Addiction Questionnaire has good item-total correlation (ranging from 0.29 to 0.55) and acceptable reliability (??=?0.73). It is also moderately correlated with the participant’s longest time record to play online games (r?=?0.39; p<0.01), average days per week in playing online games (??=?0.43; p<0.01), average hours per days in playing online games (??=?0.41; p<0.01), and monthly expenditure for online games (??=?0.30; p<0.01). Furthermore, we created a clinical cut-off estimate by combining criteria and population norm. The clinical cut-off estimate showed that the score of 14 to 21 may indicate mild online game addiction, and the score of 22 and above may indicate online game addiction. Overall, the result shows that Indonesian Online Game Addiction Questionnaire has sufficient psychometric property for research use, as well as limited clinical application. HubMed – addiction


Evaluation of factors influencing child abuse leading to oro-facial lesions in Isfahan, Iran: A qualitative approach.

Dent Res J (Isfahan). 2012 Sep; 9(5): 624-7
Nilchian F, Jabbarifar SE, Khalighinejad N, Sadri L, Saeidi A, Arbab L

Since child abuse and neglect are serious conditions which can potentially lead to inappropriate dental health, we conducted this qualitative study to define the factors influencing child abuse and neglect, which lead to oro-facial lesions.Qualitative semi-structured interviews were conducted by social services employees. Purposive sampling was used to recruit participants to capture a range of experiences such as the physical abuse, sexual abuse, role of family in child abuse, age, and gender.Participants demonstrated a range of perceptions which lead to child abuse including hitting on the head and slapping. Often subsidiary to this view, several factors were mentioned that occasionally influenced child abuse. These factors appeared to be idiosyncratic but could be drawn together into three categories: Cultural lacks which includes poverty, cruelty of parents and addiction, psychological disorders, and separation in the family which was seen in most of the children.This study has identified a variety of factors influencing the incidence of child abuse. Therefore, dentists should meticulously pay attention to children who have these risk factors in order to discover child abuse events. Quantitative research would reveal the extent of these factors. Dentists’ knowledge of their roles in managing cases suffering from abuse might need to be assessed to see if dentists need further education in this important area. HubMed – addiction


Developmental Disruption of Gamma-Aminobutyric Acid Function in the Medial Prefrontal Cortex by Noncontingent Cocaine Exposure During Early Adolescence.

Biol Psychiatry. 2013 Apr 1;
Cass DK, Thomases DR, Caballero A, Tseng KY

BACKGROUND: Drug experimentation during adolescence is associated with increased risk of drug addiction relative to any other age group. To further understand the neurobiology underlying such liability, we investigate how early adolescent cocaine experience impacts medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) network function in adulthood. METHODS: A noncontingent administration paradigm was used to assess the impact of early adolescent cocaine treatment (rats; postnatal days [PD] 35-40) on the overall inhibitory regulation of mPFC activity in adulthood (PD 65-75) by means of histochemical and in vivo electrophysiological measures combined with pharmacologic manipulations. RESULTS: Cocaine exposure during early adolescence yields a distinctive hypermetabolic prefrontal cortex state that was not observed in adult-treated rats (PD 75-80). Local field potential recordings revealed that early adolescent cocaine exposure is associated with an attenuation of mPFC gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)ergic inhibition evoked by ventral hippocampal stimulation at beta and gamma frequencies that endures throughout adulthood. Such cocaine-induced mPFC disinhibition was not observed in adult-exposed animals. Furthermore, the normal developmental upregulation of parvalbumin immunoreactivity observed in the mPFC from PD 35 to PD 65 is lacking following early adolescent cocaine treatment. CONCLUSIONS: Our data indicate that repeated cocaine exposure during early adolescence can elicit a state of mPFC disinhibition resulting from a functional impairment of the local prefrontal GABAergic network that endures through adulthood. A lack of acquisition of prefrontal GABAergic function during adolescence could trigger long-term deficits in the mPFC that may increase the susceptibility for the onset of substance abuse and related psychiatric disorders. HubMed – addiction