The Contributing Factors to Poor Sleep Experiences in According to the University Students: A Cross-Sectional Study.

The contributing factors to poor sleep experiences in according to the university students: A cross-sectional study.

J Res Med Sci. 2012 Jun; 17(6): 557-61
Altun I, C?nar N, Dede C

Sleep problems among university students are common; however, the contributing factors to poor sleep experiences are still unclear. The purpose of this study is to examine the contributing factors to poor sleep experiences in university students.The study was cross-sectional, and the students completed self-report, anonymous questionnaires provided during an in-class survey. This is a single center study. A descriptive survey was conducted randomly on 256 university students in Turkey. The instruments for data collection consisted of the demographic data, and the contributing factors to poor sleep.The most frequent self-reported cause to poor sleep experiences in according to the university students were exposure psychological problems (67.2%), stress (64.8%), exposure to tobacco smoke in the sleeping room (63,7%), pain (62,9%), having family problems (62,5%), being patient (55,1%), air quality of the room (55,1%), strenuous physical activity (53,9%), fatigue (53,5%), sadness (53,1%), noise that caused by other people in the room (52.0%), room scents (sweat, perfume, humidity, naphthalene, etc.) (53.1%), depression (51, 6 %), anxiety, and tension (51, 1%).Students should be encouraged to solve psychological problems, to suitable stress-relieving measures, to follow sleep hygiene practice and adequate time management for academic and social activities. HubMed – depression


A prospective study on the prevalence and risk factors of poststroke depression.

Cerebrovasc Dis Extra. 2013 Jan; 3(1): 1-13
De Ryck A, Brouns R, Fransen E, Geurden M, Van Gestel G, Wilssens I, De Ceulaer L, Mariën P, De Deyn PP, Engelborghs S

Poststroke depression (PSD) is common. Early detection of depressive symptoms and identification of patients at risk for PSD are important as PSD negatively affects stroke outcome and costs of medical care. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine incidence and risk factors for PSD at 3 months after stroke.We conducted a prospective, longitudinal epidemiological study aiming to determine incidence and risk factors for PSD at 1, 3, 6, 12 and 18 months poststroke. The present data analysis covers the convalescent phase of 3 months poststroke. Participants in this study were inpatients, admitted to a stroke unit with first or recurrent stroke. Demographic data and vascular risk factors were collected and patients were evaluated at baseline and 3 months poststroke for functional and cognitive deficits, stroke characteristics, stroke severity and stroke outcome. Signs and symptoms of depression were quantified by means of the Cornell Scale for Depression (CSD) and Montgomery and Åsberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS). Significantly associated variables from univariate analysis were analyzed by using multiple linear and logistic regression methods.Data analysis was performed in 135 patients who completed follow-up assessments at 3 months poststroke. Depression (CSD score ?8) was diagnosed in 28.1% of the patients. Patients with PSD were significantly more dependent with regard to activities of daily living (ADL) and displayed more severe physical and cognitive impairment than patients without PSD. A higher prevalence of speech and language dysfunction and apraxia were observed in patients with PSD (36.8 and 34.3%, respectively) compared to non-depressed stroke patients (19.6 and 12.4%; p = 0.036 and p = 0.004, respectively). Applying multiple linear regressions, cognitive impairment and reduced mobility as part of the Stroke Impact Scale were independently associated with PSD, as scored using CSD and MADRS (r(2) = 0.269 and r(2) = 0.474, respectively).The risk of developing PSD is increased in patients with more functional and cognitive impairment, greater dependency with regard to ADL functions and with occurrence of speech and language dysfunctions and apraxia. Multiple regression models indicated that the most determining features for depression risk in the convalescent phase after stroke include reduced mobility and cognitive impairment. Further studies on risk factors for PSD are essential, given its negative impact on rehabilitation and quality of life. Identification of risk factors for PSD may allow more efficacious preventive measures and early implementation of adequate antidepressive treatment. HubMed – depression


Theoretical models of synaptic short term plasticity.

Front Comput Neurosci. 2013; 7: 45
Hennig MH

Short term plasticity is a highly abundant form of rapid, activity-dependent modulation of synaptic efficacy. A shared set of mechanisms can cause both depression and enhancement of the postsynaptic response at different synapses, with important consequences for information processing. Mathematical models have been extensively used to study the mechanisms and roles of short term plasticity. This review provides an overview of existing models and their biological basis, and of their main properties. Special attention will be given to slow processes such as calcium channel inactivation and the effect of activation of presynaptic autoreceptors. HubMed – depression


Interaction of short-term depression and firing dynamics in shaping single neuron encoding.

Front Comput Neurosci. 2013; 7: 41
Mohan A, McDonnell MD, Stricker C

We investigated how the two properties short-term synaptic depression of afferent input and postsynaptic firing dynamics combine to determine the operating mode of a neuron. While several computational roles have been ascribed to either, their interaction has not been studied. We considered two types of short-term synaptic dynamics (release-dependent and release-independent depression) and two classes of firing dynamics (regular firing and firing with spike-frequency adaptation). The input-output transformation of the four possible combinations of pre- and post-synaptic dynamics was characterized. Adapting neurons receiving input from release-dependent synapses functioned largely as coincidence detectors. The other three configurations showed properties consistent with integrators, each with distinct features. These results suggest that the operating mode of a neuron is determined by both the pre- and post-synaptic dynamics and that studying them together is necessary to understand emergent properties and their implications for neuronal coding. HubMed – depression


Psychosocial Functioning Among Inmates in Prison-Based Drug Treatment: Results from Project BRITE.

J Exp Criminol. 2013 Mar 1; 9(1): 45-64
Burdon WM, St De Lore J, Dang J, Warda US, Prendergast ML

To assess the impact of a positive behavioral reinforcement intervention on psychosocial functioning of inmates over the course of treatment and on post-treatment self-reported measures of treatment participation, progress, and satisfaction.Male (n = 187) and female (n = 143) inmates participating in 12-week prison-based Intensive Outpatient (IOP) drug treatment were randomly assigned to receive standard treatment (ST) or standard treatment plus positive behavioral reinforcement (BR) for engaging in targeted activities and behaviors. Participants were assessed for psychosocial functioning at baseline and at the conclusion of treatment (post-treatment). Self-reported measures of treatment participation, treatment progress, and treatment satisfaction were also captured at post-treatment.The intervention affected female and male subjects differently and not always in a way that favored BR subjects, as compared to the ST subjects, most notably on measures of depression and criminal thinking.Possible explanations for the results include differences in the male and female custody environments combined with the procedures that study participants had to follow to earn and/or receive positive reinforcement at the two study sites, as well as baseline differences between the genders and a possible floor effect among females on measures of criminality. Limitations of the study included the inability to make study participants blind to the study conditions and the possible over-branding of the study, which may have influenced the results. HubMed – depression