The Association Between Weight Loss in Caregivers and Adolescents in a Treatment Trial of Adolescents With Obesity.

The Association Between Weight Loss in Caregivers and Adolescents in a Treatment Trial of Adolescents With Obesity.

J Pediatr Psychol. 2013 Apr 28;
Xanthopoulos MS, Moore RH, Wadden TA, Bishop-Gilyard CT, Gehrman CA, Berkowitz RI

OBJECTIVE: The relationship between weight change in caregivers and their adolescents was evaluated following a randomized trial of lifestyle modification for adolescents, which included either a conventional diet or meal replacements. METHODS: Adolescents (N = 113) had an M ± SD age of 15.0 ± 1.3 years (62% African American; 26% Caucasian, 12% other; 81% female) and body mass index of 37.1 ± 5.1 kg/m(2). RESULTS: Mixed effects models yielded a significant association between percentage change in body mass index of caregivers and adolescents from baseline to months 4 and 12 (p = .01). When caregivers lost above the median (-1.67%) at month 4, their adolescents achieved a significantly greater loss at month 12 (-9.1 ± 1.3%) compared with adolescents whose caregivers lost less than the median (-4.3 ± 1.3%) (p = .003). CONCLUSION: Engaging caregivers in their own weight loss efforts during adolescent weight loss treatment may improve adolescent weight loss. HubMed – eating


Effects of exposure to food images on physiological reactivity and emotional responses in women with bulimia nervosa.

Psicothema. 2013 May; 25(2): 185-91
Yela Bernabé JR, Gómez Martínez MA, Cortés Rodríguez M, Salgado Ruiz A

Background: The aim of this study is to compare the effectiveness of two exposure procedures on habituation of emotional responses to food stimuli: (a) exposure to external cues (food images) without eating forbidden food (CE) and (b) exposure to external cues eating forbidden food (with purge prevention). The influence of craving-trait and mood state on the habituation process is also studied. Method: Emotional modulation of the defense startle reflex was assessed in 26 women at risk of bulimia nervosa. After four exposure trials, changes in the following variables were measured: (a) food craving-state; (b) physiological measures: hearth rate (HR) and skin conductance response (SCR); (c) motivational patterns towards food (defense startle response); and (d) valence, arousal and dominance of the emotional response to food images. Results: After treatment, subjects tended to show non-significant lower SCR and heart orientation responses (vs. defense responses); defense startle response was also significantly lower. Conclusions: The exposure procedure, the induced emotional state and the number of exposure trials are analyzed. HubMed – eating


Stress management can facilitate weight loss in Greek overweight and obese women: a pilot study.

J Hum Nutr Diet. 2013 Apr 30;
Christaki E, Kokkinos A, Costarelli V, Alexopoulos EC, Chrousos GP, Darviri C

BACKGROUND: Stress and negative emotions have been shown to be critical factors in inducing overeating as a form of maladaptive coping in obese people. METHODS: The present study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of an 8-week stress management programme that includes progressive muscle relaxation (PMR) and diaphragmatic breathing on weight loss and eating behaviour in a sample of overweight and obese women who started a weight-loss programme. A total of 34 women with a mean (SD) body mass index of 38.17 (7.19) kg m(-) ² and mean (SD) age 47.35 (11.64) years were recruited from the outpatients Obesity Clinic of a public hospital in Athens. Participants were randomly assigned into a Stress Management (SM) and a control group. Anthropometric measurements were taken before and after the intervention, and the participants completed the following questionnaires: Dutch Eating Behaviour Questionnaire (DEBQ), Eating Attitudes Test (Eat-26), Health Locus of Control (HLC) and Perceived Stress Scale (PSS) before and after the intervention. RESULTS: The findings indicated a significant improvement in weight loss in the SM group [4.44 (0.83) kg] after intervention compared to the control group [1.38 (0.78) kg] (P < 0.05). A higher restrained eating behaviour was observed in the SM group after intervention compared to the control group, although there was no significant difference in perceived stress levels. CONCLUSIONS: The intervention group showed greater weight reduction, possibly because of the stress management programme, and a greater dietary restraint was demonstrated by them compared to the control group. It is likely that stress management could facilitate weight loss in obese women; however, more studies are needed to confirm this hypothesis. HubMed – eating


An investigation into the association between nutritional status and quality of life in older people admitted to hospital.

J Hum Nutr Diet. 2013 Apr 30;
Rasheed S, Woods RT

BACKGROUND: Malnutrition is prevalent in acute hospitals and malnourished patients have an increased risk of morbidity and mortality. Studies of malnutrition and quality of life (QoL) are generally limited by both the nutritional and QoL assessment methods employed. The present study aimed to evaluate the relationship between malnutrition, as assessed using a range of nutritional assessment methods, and QoL, as measured by EuroQol-5D-3L and Short-Form (SF)-36 questionnaires. METHODS: The study comprised a prospective cross-sectional study of malnutrition and QoL in 149 inpatients aged 65-99 years. Exclusion criteria were: terminal illness, active malignancy, lack of capacity to consent and severe communication difficulties. Spearman’s rank correlation coefficient was used to test the association between QoL indices and nutritional markers. QoL scores for those scoring above and below thresholds for nutritional risk were compared. Regression models were created to identify nutritional indices contributing to the variability of QoL. RESULTS: There were significant associations between QoL scores and the Mini Nutritional Assessment (MNA)-SF. Clear differences were evident between malnourished and well-nourished patients (on the MNA-SF), those with low and normal arm muscle circumference and those with good and poor physical function. Regression analysis showed that nutritional scores and functional status made independent contributions to the prediction of QoL. The effect on food intake, mobility and psychological stress/acute disease also had a significant influence. CONCLUSIONS: Malnutrition risk is linked to a poorer QoL in older people on admission to hospital. Functional status and eating-related factors are major influencers on QoL in this group. These findings reinforce the role of nutrition as a priority with respect to achieving improvements in QoL. HubMed – eating