Test-Retest Reliability of the Seasonal Pattern Assessment Questionnaire in Old Order Amish.

Test-retest reliability of the Seasonal Pattern Assessment Questionnaire in Old Order Amish.

Int J Disabil Hum Dev. 2013 Feb; 12(1): 87-90
Kuehner RM, Vaswani D, Raheja UK, Sleemi A, Yousufi H, Mohyuddin H, Postolache N, Nijjar GV, Postolache TT

Research on test-retest reliability of the Season Pattern Assessment Questionnaire (SPAQ) is sparse, and to date, has not been done with subgroups such as the Old Order Amish.We examined the test-retest reliability of the SPAQ in a sample of Old Order Amish. A total of 68 Old Order Amish participants completed the SPAQ twice, with 4 months between administrations. Quantitative data analyses were carried out to determine respective strengths of test-restest reliability for two variables [i.e., Global Seasonality Score (GSS), and Problem Rating Score (PRS)].Results revealed the test-retest reliability of the SPAQ in this population to be strong within the respective variables (GSS, ?= 0.87; and PRS, ?= 0.79) using Cronbach’s alpha. HubMed – depression


Epigenetic Modulation of Mood Disorders.

J Genet Syndr Gene Ther. 2013 Feb 11; 4(120):
Archer T, Oscar-Berman M, Blum K, Gold M

Mood disorders are expressed in many heterogeneous forms, varying from anxiety to severe major clinical depression. The disorders are expressed in individual variety through manifestations governed by co-morbidities, symptom frequency, severity, and duration, and the effects of genes on phenotypes. The underlying etiologies of mood disorders consist of complex interactive operations of genetic and environmental factors. The notion of endophenotypes, which encompasses the markers of several underlying liabilities to the disorders, may facilitate efforts to detect and define, through staging, the genetic risks inherent to the extreme complexity of disease state.This review evaluates the role of genetic biomarkers in assisting clinical diagnosis, identification of risk factors, and treatment of mood disorders.Through a systematic assessment of studies investigating the epigenetic basis for mood disorders, the present review examines the interaction of genes and environment underlying the pathophysiology of these disorders.The majority of research findings suggest that the notion of endophenotypes, which encompasses the markers of several underlying liabilities to the disorders, may facilitate efforts to detect and define, through staging, the genetic risks inherent to the extreme complexity of the disease states. Several strategies under development and refinement show the propensity for derivation of essential elements in the etiopathogenesis of the disorders affecting drug-efficacy, drug metabolism, and drug adverse effects, e.g., with regard to selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors. These include: transporter gene expression and genes encoding receptor systems, hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis factors, neurotrophic factors, and inflammatory factors affecting neuroimmune function. Nevertheless, procedural considerations of pharmacogenetics presume the parallel investment of policies and regulations to withstand eventual attempts at misuse, thereby ensuring patient integrity.Identification of genetic biomarkers facilitates choice of treatment, prediction of response, and prognosis of outcome over a wide spectrum of symptoms associated with affective states, thereby optimizing clinical practice procedures. Epigenetic regulation of primary brain signaling, e.g., serotonin and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal function, and factors governing their metabolism are necessary considerations. The participation of neurotrophic factors remains indispensable for neurogenesis, survival, and functional maintenance of brain systems. HubMed – depression


Molecular identification of falciparum malaria and human tuberculosis co-infections in mummies from the fayum depression (lower egypt).

PLoS One. 2013; 8(4): e60307
Lalremruata A, Ball M, Bianucci R, Welte B, Nerlich AG, Kun JF, Pusch CM

Due to the presence of the lake Quarun and to the particular nature of its irrigation system, it has been speculated that the Fayum, a large depression 80 kilometers south- west of modern Cairo, was exposed to the hazards of malaria in historic times. Similarly, it has been speculated that, in the same area, also human tuberculosis might have been far more widespread in the antiquity than in its recent past. If these hypotheses were confirmed, it would imply that frequent cases of co-infection between the two pathogens might have occurred in ancient populations. To substantiate those speculations, molecular analyses were carried out on sixteen mummified heads recovered from the necropolis of Abusir el Meleq (Fayum) dating from the 3(rd) Intermediate Period (1064- 656 BC) to the Roman Period (30 BC- 300 AD). Soft tissue biopsies were used for DNA extractions and PCR amplifications using well-suited protocols. A partial 196-bp fragment of Plasmodium falciparum apical membrane antigen 1 gene and a 123-bp fragment of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex insertion sequence IS6110 were amplified and sequenced in six and five of the sixteen specimens, respectively. A 100% concordance rates between our sequences and those of P. falciparum and M. tuberculosis complex ones were obtained. Lastly, concomitant PCR amplification of P. falciparum and M. tuberculosis complex DNA specific fragments was obtained in four mummies, three of which are (14) C dated to the Late and Graeco-Roman Periods. Our data confirm that the hydrography of Fayum was extremely conducive to the spread of malaria. They also support the notion that the agricultural boom and dense crowding occurred in this region, especially under the Ptolemies, highly increased the probability for the manifestation and spread of tuberculosis. Here we extend back-wards to ca. 800 BC new evidence for malaria tropica and human tuberculosis co-occurrence in ancient Lower Egypt. HubMed – depression


Suicidal ideation and suicide attempts in anxious or depressed family caregivers of patients with cancer: a nationwide survey in Korea.

PLoS One. 2013; 8(4): e60230
Park B, Kim SY, Shin JY, Sanson-Fisher RW, Shin DW, Cho J, Park JH

To describe the prevalence of suicidal ideation and suicide attempts in family caregivers (FCs) of patients with cancer and to identify the factors associated with suicidal ideation and suicide attempts in FCs with anxiety or depression.A national, multicenter survey administered to 897 FCs asked questions concerning suicidal ideation and suicide attempts during the previous year and assessed anxiety, depression, socio-demographic factors, caregiving burden, patient factors, and quality of life (QOL).A total of 17.7% FCs reported suicidal ideation, and 2.8% had attempted suicide during the previous year. Among FCs with anxiety, 31.9% had suicidal ideation and 4.7% attempted suicide; the corresponding values for FCs with depression were 20.4% and 3.3%, respectively. Compared with FCs without anxiety and depression, FCs with anxiety or depression showed a higher adjusted odds ratios (aOR) for suicidal ideation (aOR ?=?4.07 and 1.93, respectively) and attempts (OR ?=?3.00 and 2.43, respectively). Among FCs with anxiety or depression, being female, unmarried, unemployed during caregiving, and having a low QOL were associated with increased odds of suicidal ideation. FCs with anxiety who became unemployed during caregiving constituted a high-risk group for suicide. Being unmarried and having a low QOL with respect to financial matters were associated with increased suicide attempts among FCs with depression.FCs with anxiety or depression were at high risk of suicide. Interventions to enhance social support and to improve perceived QOL may help prevent suicide and manage suicidal ideation in FCs with anxiety or depression. HubMed – depression



New Mechanisms Elicited with Ketamine in Treatment-Resistant Depression – Ronald S. Duman, PhD, Elizabeth Mears and House Jameson Professor of Psychiatry and professor of neurobiology and of pharmacology at Yale School of Medicine,…