Targeted Brain Derived Neurotropic Factors (BDNF) Delivery Across the Blood-Brain Barrier for Neuro-Protection Using Magnetic Nano Carriers: An in-Vitro Study.

Targeted Brain Derived Neurotropic Factors (BDNF) Delivery across the Blood-Brain Barrier for Neuro-Protection Using Magnetic Nano Carriers: An In-Vitro Study.

PLoS One. 2013; 8(4): e62241
Pilakka-Kanthikeel S, Atluri VS, Sagar V, Saxena SK, Nair M

Parenteral use of drugs; such as opiates exert immunomodulatory effects and serve as a cofactor in the progression of HIV-1 infection, thereby potentiating HIV related neurotoxicity ultimately leading to progression of NeuroAIDS. Morphine exposure is known to induce apoptosis, down regulate cAMP response element-binding (CREB) expression and decrease in dendritic branching and spine density in cultured cells. Use of neuroprotective agent; brain derived neurotropic factor (BDNF), which protects neurons against these effects, could be of therapeutic benefit in the treatment of opiate addiction. Previous studies have shown that BDNF was not transported through the blood brain barrier (BBB) in-vivo.; and hence it is not effective in-vivo. Therefore development of a drug delivery system that can cross BBB may have significant therapeutic advantage. In the present study, we hypothesized that magnetically guided nanocarrier may provide a viable approach for targeting BDNF across the BBB. We developed a magnetic nanoparticle (MNP) based carrier bound to BDNF and evaluated its efficacy and ability to transmigrate across the BBB using an in-vitro BBB model. The end point determinations of BDNF that crossed BBB were apoptosis, CREB expression and dendritic spine density measurement. We found that transmigrated BDNF was effective in suppressing the morphine induced apoptosis, inducing CREB expression and restoring the spine density. Our results suggest that the developed nanocarrier will provide a potential therapeutic approach to treat opiate addiction, protect neurotoxicity and synaptic density degeneration. HubMed – addiction


Addiction and choice: theory and new data.

Front Psychiatry. 2013; 4: 31
Heyman GM

Addiction’s biological basis has been the focus of much research. The findings have persuaded experts and the public that drug use in addicts is compulsive. But the word “compulsive” identifies patterns of behavior, and all behavior has a biological basis, including voluntary actions. Thus, the question is not whether addiction has a biology, which it must, but whether it is sensible to say that addicts use drugs compulsively. The relevant research shows most of those who meet the American Psychiatric Association’s criteria for addiction quit using illegal drugs by about age 30, that they usually quit without professional help, and that the correlates of quitting include legal concerns, economic pressures, and the desire for respect, particularly from family members. That is, the correlates of quitting are the correlates of choice not compulsion. However, addiction is, by definition, a disorder, and thereby not beneficial in the long run. This is precisely the pattern of choices predicted by quantitative choice principles, such as the matching law, melioration, and hyperbolic discounting. Although the brain disease model of addiction is perceived by many as received knowledge it is not supported by research or logic. In contrast, well established, quantitative choice principles predict both the possibility and the details of addiction. HubMed – addiction


Functional Polymorphism in the Neuropeptide Y Gene Promoter (rs16147) Is Associated with Serum Leptin Levels and Waist-Hip Ratio in Women.

Ann Nutr Metab. 2013 May 4; 62(4): 271-276
Mutschler J, Abbruzzese E, Wiedemann K, von der Goltz C, Dinter C, Mobascher A, Thiele H, Diaz-Lacava A, Dahmen N, Gallinat J, Majic T, Petrovsky N, Thuerauf N, Kornhuber J, Gründer G, Rademacher L, Brinkmeyer J, Wienker T, Wagner M, Winterer G, Kiefer F

Objective: The neuropeptide-Y (NP-Y) gene is a strong candidate gene in the pathophysiology of obesity-linked behavior, and several single-nucleotide polymorphisms of NP-Y have already been linked to body weight and appetite. However, the results from current studies remain inconclusive. The aim of the present study was to test whether a certain functional genetic variant (SNP rs16147) in the NP-Y promoter gene is associated with serum leptin levels and body fat distribution. Method: We genotyped and measured the serum leptin levels of the NP-Y rs16147 polymorphism in 1,097 Caucasian subjects in the context of a population-based, case-control multicenter study. We measured weight, height and waist circumference, from which we then calculated BMI and waist-to-hip ratio (WHR). Results: We found the CT-genotype of the SNP rs16147 to be significantly associated with lower WHRs and higher serum leptin levels in women, compared to homozygote gene carriers. No association between rs16147, WHR and serum leptin levels was found in men. Conclusion: Our results provide evidence that the functionally relevant SNP in the NP-Y promoter gene affects body fat distribution and serum leptin levels in women, pointing towards possible behavioral effects of NPY in obesity. HubMed – addiction


Gender differences of mental health consumers accessing integrated primary and behavioral care.

Psychol Health Med. 2013 May 7;
Gleason H, Hobart M, Bradley L, Landers J, Langenfeld S, Tonelli M, Kolodziej M

Persons with severe mental illness and addiction are at higher risk for early morbidity and mortality than the general population, and are less likely to receive primary care and preventive health services. Primary and behavioral integrated care programs aim to reduce these health disparities by providing comprehensive health and wellness services. Gender in particular may play a significant role in individuals’ engagement and outcomes in such programs. Hence, this study examines the salient characteristics of behavioral health consumers accessing an integrated care program at a large community mental health center. Baseline gender differences in consumer demographics, substance use, psychological distress and functioning, physical health indicators, and risk factors for serious medical conditions are examined. Our results demonstrate that key gender differences exist and may warrant distinct treatment needs for men and women receiving integrated care. HubMed – addiction