Symptomatic Hallucal Interphalangeal Sesamoid Bones Successfully Treated With Ultrasound-Guided Injection – a Case Report -.

Symptomatic Hallucal Interphalangeal Sesamoid Bones Successfully Treated with Ultrasound-guided Injection – A Case Report -.

Korean J Pain. 2013 Apr; 26(2): 173-6
Shin HY, Park SY, Kim HY, Jung YS, An S, Kang do H

The hallucal interphalangeal sesamoid bone is usually asymptomatic, but it is not uncommon for it to be symptomatic in cases of undue pressure, overuse, or trauma. Even in symptomatic cases, however, patients often suffer for extended periods due to misdiagnosis, resulting in depression and anxiety that can steadily worsen to the extent that symptoms are sometimes mistaken for a somatoform disorder. Dynamic ultrasound-guided evaluations can be an effective means of detecting symptomatic sesamoid bones, and a simple injection of a small dose of local anesthetics mixed with steroids is an easily performed and effective treatment option in cases, for example, of tenosynovitis. HubMed – depression


Where have I been? Where should I go? Spatial working memory on a radial arm maze in a rat model of depression.

PLoS One. 2013; 8(4): e62458
Richter SH, Zeuch B, Lankisch K, Gass P, Durstewitz D, Vollmayr B

Disturbances in cognitive functioning are among the most debilitating problems experienced by patients with major depression. Investigations of these deficits in animals help to extend and refine our understanding of human emotional disorder, while at the same time providing valid tools to study higher executive functions in animals. We employ the “learned helplessness” genetic rat model of depression in studying working memory using an eight arm radial maze procedure with temporal delay. This so-called delayed spatial win-shift task consists of three phases, training, delay and test, requiring rats to hold information on-line across a retention interval and making choices based on this information in the test phase. According to a 2×2 factorial design, working memory performance of thirty-one congenitally helpless (cLH) and non-helpless (cNLH) rats was tested on eighteen trials, additionally imposing two different delay durations, 30 s and 15 min, respectively. While not observing a general cognitive deficit in cLH rats, the delay length greatly influenced maze performance. Notably, performance was most impaired in cLH rats tested with the shorter 30 s delay, suggesting a stress-related disruption of attentional processes in rats that are more sensitive to stress. Our study provides direct animal homologues of clinically important measures in human research, and contributes to the non-invasive assessment of cognitive deficits associated with depression. HubMed – depression


Adenosinergic Depression of Glutamatergic Transmission in the Entorhinal Cortex of Juvenile Rats via Reduction of Glutamate Release Probability and the Number of Releasable Vesicles.

PLoS One. 2013; 8(4): e62185
Wang S, Kurada L, Cilz NI, Chen X, Xiao Z, Dong H, Lei S

Adenosine is an inhibitory neuromodulator that exerts antiepileptic effects in the brain and the entorhinal cortex (EC) is an essential structure involved in temporal lobe epilepsy. Whereas microinjection of adenosine into the EC has been shown to exert powerful antiepileptic effects, the underlying cellular and molecular mechanisms in the EC have not been determined yet. We tested the hypothesis that adenosine-mediated modulation of synaptic transmission contributes to its antiepileptic effects in the EC. Our results demonstrate that adenosine reversibly inhibited glutamatergic transmission via activation of adenosine A1 receptors without effects on GABAergic transmission in layer III pyramidal neurons in the EC. Adenosine-induced depression of glutamatergic transmission was mediated by inhibiting presynaptic glutamate release probability and decreasing the number of readily releasable vesicles. Bath application of adenosine also reduced the frequency of the miniature EPSCs recorded in the presence of TTX suggesting that adenosine may interact with the exocytosis processes downstream of Ca(2+) influx. Both G?i/o proteins and the protein kinase A pathway were required for adenosine-induced depression of glutamatergic transmission. We further showed that bath application of picrotoxin to the EC slices induced stable epileptiform activity and bath application of adenosine dose-dependently inhibited the epileptiform activity in this seizure model. Adenosine-mediated depression of epileptiform activity was mediated by activation of adenosine A1 receptors and required the functions of G?i/o proteins and protein kinase A pathway. Our results suggest that the depression of glutamatergic transmission induced by adenosine contributes to its antiepileptic effects in the EC. HubMed – depression


Suppression of neuroinflammatory and apoptotic signaling cascade by curcumin alone and in combination with piperine in rat model of olfactory bulbectomy induced depression.

PLoS One. 2013; 8(4): e61052
Rinwa P, Kumar A, Garg S

Bilateral destruction of the olfactory bulbs is known to cause behavioral changes analogous to symptoms of depression. Curcumin, a traditional Indian spice is currently being investigated in different psychiatric problems including depression. Dietary phytochemicals are currently used as an adjuvant therapy to accelerate their therapeutic efficacy. Therefore, the present study is an attempt to elucidate the neuroprotective mechanism of curcumin and its co-administration with piperine against olfactory bulbectomy induced depression in rats.Rats undergone olfactory bulbs ablations were analyzed after post-surgical rehabilitation period of 2 weeks. Animals were then treated with different doses of curcumin (100, 200 and 400 mg/kg; p.o.), piperine (20 mg/kg; p.o.) and their combination daily for another 2 weeks. Imipramine (10 mg/kg; i.p.) served as a standard control. Various behavioral tests like forced swim test (FST), open field behaviour and sucrose preference test (SPT) were performed, followed by estimation of biochemical, mitochondrial, molecular and histopathological parameters in rat brain.Ablation of olfactory bulbs caused depression-like symptoms as evidenced by increased immobility time in FST, hyperactivity in open field arena, and anhedonic like response in SPT along with alterations in mitochondrial enzyme complexes, increased serum corticosterone levels and oxidative damage. These deficits were integrated with increased inflammatory cytokines (TNF-?) and apoptotic factor (caspase-3) levels along with a marked reduction in neurogenesis factor (BDNF) in the brain of olfactory bulbectomized (OBX) rats. Curcumin treatment significantly and dose-dependently restored all these behavioral, biochemical, mitochondrial, molecular and histopathological alterations associated with OBX induced depression. Further, co-administration of piperine with curcumin significantly potentiated their neuroprotective effects as compared to their effects alone.The present study highlights that curcumin along with piperine exhibits neuroprotection against olfactory bulbectomy induced depression possibly by modulating oxidative-nitrosative stress induced neuroinflammation and apoptosis. HubMed – depression