Symmetrical Serotonin Release During Asymmetrical Slow-Wave Sleep: Implications for the Neurochemistry of Sleep-Waking States.

Symmetrical Serotonin Release during Asymmetrical Slow-Wave Sleep: Implications for the Neurochemistry of Sleep-Waking States.

Filed under: Eating Disorders

J Neurosci. 2013 Feb 6; 33(6): 2555-2561
Lapierre JL, Kosenko PO, Kodama T, Peever JH, Mukhametov LM, Lyamin OI, Siegel JM

On land, fur seals predominately display bilaterally synchronized electroencephalogram (EEG) activity during slow-wave sleep (SWS), similar to that observed in all terrestrial mammals. In water, however, fur seals exhibit asymmetric slow-wave sleep (ASWS), resembling the unihemispheric slow-wave sleep of odontocetes (toothed whales). The unique sleeping pattern of fur seals allows us to distinguish neuronal mechanisms mediating EEG changes from those mediating behavioral quiescence. In a prior study we found that cortical acetylcholine release is lateralized during ASWS in the northern fur seal, with greater release in the hemisphere displaying low-voltage (waking) EEG activity, linking acetylcholine release to hemispheric EEG activation (Lapierre et al. 2007). In contrast to acetylcholine, we now report that cortical serotonin release is not lateralized during ASWS. Our data demonstrate that bilaterally symmetric levels of serotonin are compatible with interhemispheric EEG asymmetry in the fur seal. We also find greatly elevated levels during eating and hosing the animals with water, suggesting that serotonin is more closely linked to bilateral variables, such as axial motor and autonomic control, than to the lateralized cortical activation manifested in asymmetrical sleep.
HubMed – eating


Differential Contribution of Hippocampal Circuits to Appetitive and Consummatory Behaviors during Operant Conditioning of Behaving Mice.

Filed under: Eating Disorders

J Neurosci. 2013 Feb 6; 33(6): 2293-304
Jurado-Parras MT, Sánchez-Campusano R, Castellanos NP, Del-Pozo F, Gruart A, Delgado-García JM

Operant conditioning is a type of associative learning involving different and complex sensorimotor and cognitive processes. Because the hippocampus has been related to some motor and cognitive functions involved in this type of learning (such as object recognition, spatial orientation, and associative learning tasks), we decided to study in behaving mice the putative changes in strength taking place at the hippocampal CA3-CA1 synapses during the acquisition and performance of an operant conditioning task. Mice were chronically implanted with stimulating electrodes in the Schaffer collaterals and with recording electrodes in the hippocampal CA1 area and trained to an operant task using a fixed-ratio (1:1) schedule. We recorded the field EPSPs (fEPSPs) evoked at the CA3-CA1 synapse during the performance of appetitive (going to the lever, lever press) and consummatory (going to the feeder, eating) behaviors. In addition, we recorded the local field potential activity of the CA1 area during similar behavioral displays. fEPSPs evoked at the CA3-CA1 synapse presented larger amplitudes for appetitive than for consummatory behaviors. This differential change in synaptic strength took place in relation to the learning process, depending mainly on the moment in which mice reached the selected criterion. Thus, selective changes in CA3-CA1 synaptic strength were dependent on both the behavior display and the learning stage. In addition, significant changes in theta band power peaks and their corresponding discrete frequencies were noticed during these behaviors across the sequence of events characterizing this type of associative learning but not during the acquisition process.
HubMed – eating


Eating quality of “Vitela Tradicional do Montado”-PGI veal and Mertolenga-PDO veal and beef.

Filed under: Eating Disorders

Meat Sci. 2013 Jan 4; 94(1): 63-68
Monteiro AC, Gomes E, Barreto AS, Silva MF, Fontes MA, Bessa RJ, Lemos JP

Physicochemical and sensory characteristics were measured in veal and beef from the Portuguese Mertolenga breed having 3 quality labels as follows: Mertolenga-PDO beef and veal which apply to purebred animals and “Vitela Tradicional do Montado”-PGI veal which applies to crossbred animals. Measurements were made in longissimus lumborum muscle aged for 6days. The temperature 3h post-mortem (T(3)), cooking losses and Warner-Bratzler shear force (WBSF) reflected carcass weight (CW) differences between groups. The pigment content was influenced by age, with beef having higher values than veal. WBSF correlated negatively with intramuscular fat in Mertolenga-PDO beef, but not on veal. WBSF correlated positively with cooking losses and negatively with myofibrillar fragmentation index, tenderness, juiciness and overall acceptability. Cooking losses and juiciness were the main contributors for the tenderness differences. Vitela Tradicional do Montado-PGI and Mertolenga-PDO veal had lighter colour and were considered tender. The three meat types were well discriminated based on pH(u), a* and C* parameters by canonical discriminant analysis.
HubMed – eating


The number and type of food retailers surrounding schools and their association with lunchtime eating behaviours in students.

Filed under: Eating Disorders

Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act. 2013 Feb 7; 10(1): 19
Seliske L, Pickett W, Rosu A, Janssen I

ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: The primary study objective was to examine whether the presence of food retailers surrounding schools was associated with students’ lunchtime eating behaviours. The secondary objective was to determine whether measures of the food retail environment around schools captured using road network or circular buffers were more strongly related to eating behaviours at while at school. METHODS: Grade 9 and 10 students (N=6,971) who participated in the 2009/10 Canadian Health Behaviour in School Aged Children Survey were included in this study. The outcome was determined by students’ self-reports of where they typically ate their lunch during school days. Circular and road network-based buffers were created for a 1 km distance surrounding 158 schools participating in the HBSC. The addresses of fast food restaurants, convenience stores and coffee/donut shops were mapped within the buffers. Multilevel logistic regression was used to determine whether there was a relationship between the presence of food retailers near schools and students regularly eating their lunch at a fast food restaurant, snack-bar or cafe. The Akaike Information Criteria (AIC) value, a measure of goodness-of-fit, was used to determine the optimal buffer type. RESULTS: For the 1 km circular buffers, students with 1–2 (OR= 1.10, 95% CI: 0.57-2.11), 3–4 (OR=1.45, 95% CI: 0.75-2.82) and >=5 nearby food retailers (OR=2.94, 95% CI: 1.71-5.09) were more likely to eat lunch at a food retailer compared to students with no nearby food retailers. The relationships were slightly stronger when assessed via 1 km road network buffers, with a greater likelihood of eating at a food retailer for 1–2 (OR=1.20, 95% CI:0.74-1.95), 3–4 (OR=3.19, 95% CI: 1.66-6.13) and >=5 nearby food retailers (OR=3.54, 95% CI: 2.08-6.02). Road network buffers appeared to provide a better measure of the food retail environment, as indicated by a lower AIC value (3332 vs. 3346). CONCLUSIONS: There was a strong relationship between the presence of food retailers near schools and students’ lunchtime eating behaviours. Results from the goodness of fit analysis suggests that road network buffers provide a more optimal measure of school neighbourhood food environments relative to circular buffers.
HubMed – eating



(Anorexia Song) “Dear Diary Pt. 2” Original Song by MikelWJ (Official Lyrics Video) – “Like” me on facebook: “Dear Diary…” is a song written from the perspective of a girl who has an eating disorder, and is trying her hardest to fit in and the struggles that she is going through at the time. How she wants to fit in more than anything, and will go to any extreme in order to belong with others and win over a certain boys heart. She later finds out that everything she had been doing to fit in and feel like she was loved and societies view of “perfect” was really not what was best for her. “Dear Diary Pt. 2” Is a song about the same girls, but talks about what happened in between the two entries found in the first song. You can download this song for free, and choose to make a donation to the artist at the following link: It is rare that I state my opinion on things here in the youtube description box, or in general here on youtube, but I honestly feel that I must in this case. Anorexia and Bulimia (which are the two disorders focused on in this song) are very serious matters and if you believe you know someone who has them, reach out a hand to help them. You do not need to fit in with what everyone around you thinks is cool at the time, or what the world thinks is the “perfect woman”. It is okay to weigh more then 100 pounds and it is okay to eat three meals a day. Don’t do something that you may regret or that may permanently harm or damage you just because you want to fit in, because if you need to do that to fit


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