Substance-Use in Childhood and Adolescence: A Brief Overview of Developmental Processes and Their Clinical Implications.

Substance-use in Childhood and Adolescence: A Brief Overview of Developmental Processes and their Clinical Implications.

Filed under: Addiction Rehab

J Can Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 2013 Feb; 22(1): 41-6
Castellanos-Ryan N, O’Leary-Barrett M, Conrod PJ

The current paper aims to review findings from developmental research that are related to adolescent substance-use and are considered key for improving theory and developing effective prevention.A selective literature review of relevant developmental studies on adolescent substance-use was conducted.Studies in epidemiology and developmental science focusing on developmental onset, developmental transitions, comorbidity among disorders, and endophenotypes have identified important trends, risk-factors for and consequences of adolescent substance-use, which have informed theoretical models of addiction. Furthermore, they have informed clinical practice by identifying childhood disorders and personality characteristics that can be targeted preventatively before substance-use problems have their onset.Developmental research has contributed significantly to the understanding of aetiology and treatment of substance-use disorders. By targeting early liability factors rather than substance-use problems later in adolescence, interventions could reduce the adverse impact substance-use has on the developing brain as well as other associated harms.
HubMed – addiction


Elevated Expression of Serotonin 5-HT(2A) Receptors in the Rat Ventral Tegmental Area Enhances Vulnerability to the Behavioral Effects of Cocaine.

Filed under: Addiction Rehab

Front Psychiatry. 2013; 4: 2
Herin DV, Bubar MJ, Seitz PK, Thomas ML, Hillman GR, Tarasenko YI, Wu P, Cunningham KA

The dopamine mesocorticoaccumbens pathway which originates in the ventral tegmental area (VTA) and projects to the nucleus accumbens and prefrontal cortex is a circuit important in mediating the actions of psychostimulants. The function of this circuit is modulated by the actions of serotonin (5-HT) at 5-HT(2A) receptors (5-HT(2A)R) localized to the VTA. In the present study, we tested the hypothesis that virally mediated overexpression of 5-HT(2A)R in the VTA would increase cocaine-evoked locomotor activity in the absence of alterations in basal locomotor activity. A plasmid containing the gene for the 5-HT(2A)R linked to a synthetic marker peptide (Flag) was created and the construct was packaged in an adeno-associated virus vector (rAAV-5-HT(2A)R-Flag). This viral vector (2??l; 10(9-10) transducing units/ml) was unilaterally infused into the VTA of male rats, while control animals received an intra-VTA infusion of Ringer’s solution. Virus-pretreated rats exhibited normal spontaneous locomotor activity measured in a modified open-field apparatus at 7, 14, and 21?days following infusion. After an injection of cocaine (15?mg/kg, ip), both horizontal hyperactivity and rearing were significantly enhanced in virus-treated rats (p?HubMed – addiction


Blockage of glucocorticoid receptors during memory acquisition, retrieval and reconsolidation prevents the expression of morphine-induced conditioned place preferences in mice.

Filed under: Addiction Rehab

Dongwuxue Yanjiu. 2013 Feb 8; 34(E1): E26-34
Fan YD, Niu HC, Huma T, Li L, Wang GM, Xu LQ, Ren H, Ma YY, Yu HL

Association between the reward caused by consuming drugs and the context in which they are consumed is essential in the formation of morphine-induced conditioned place preference (CPP). Glucocorticoid receptor (GRs) activation in different regions of the brain affects reward-based reinforcement and memory processing. A wide array of studies have demonstrated that blockage of GRs in some brain areas can have an effect on reward-related memory; however, to date there have been no systematic studies about the involvement of glucocorticoids (GCs) in morphine-related reward memory. Here, we used the GR antagonist RU38486 to investigate how GRs blockage affects the sensitization and CPP behavior during different phases of reward memory included acquisition, retrieval and reconsolidation. Interestingly, our results showed RU38486 has the ability to impair the acquisition, retrieval and reconsolidation of reward-based memory in CPP and sensitization behavior. But RU38486 by itself cannot induce CPP or conditioned place aversion (CPA) behavior. Our data provide a much more complete picture of the potential effects that glucocorticoids have on the reward memory of different phases and inhibit the sensitization behavior.
HubMed – addiction


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