Substance Use Disorders: Psychoneuroimmunological Mechanisms and New Targets for Therapy.

Substance use disorders: Psychoneuroimmunological mechanisms and new targets for therapy.

Pharmacol Ther. 2013 Apr 27;
Loftis JM, Huckans M

An estimated 76.4 million people worldwide meet criteria for alcohol use disorders, and 15.3 million meet criteria for drug use disorders. Given the high rates of addiction and the associated health, economic, and social costs, it is essential to develop a thorough understanding of the impact of substance abuse on mental and physical health outcomes and to identify new treatment approaches for substance use disorders (SUDs). Psychoneuroimmunology is a rapidly expanding, multidisciplinary area of research that may be of particular importance to addiction medicine, as its focus is on the dynamic and complex interactions among behavioral factors, the central nervous system, and the endocrine and immune systems (Ader, 2001). This review, therefore, focuses on: 1) the psychoneuroimmunologic effects of SUDs by substance type and use pattern, and 2) the current and future treatment strategies, including barriers that can impede successful recovery outcomes. Evidence-based psychosocial and pharmacotherapeutic treatments are reviewed. Psychological factors and central nervous system correlates that impact treatment adherence and response are discussed. Several novel therapeutic approaches that are currently under investigation are introduced; translational data from animal and human studies is presented, highlighting immunotherapy as a promising new direction for addiction medicine. HubMed – addiction


“Eyes that don’t see, heart that doesn’t feel”: Coping with sex work in intimate relationships and its implications for HIV/STI prevention.

Soc Sci Med. 2013 Jun; 87: 1-8
Syvertsen JL, Robertson AM, Rolón ML, Palinkas LA, Martinez G, Rangel MG, Strathdee SA

Partner communication about HIV sexual risk behaviors represents a key area of epidemiologic and social importance in terms of infection acquisition and potential for tailored interventions. Nevertheless, disclosing sexual risk behaviors often presents myriad challenges for marginalized couples who engage in stigmatized behaviors. Using qualitative data from a social epidemiology study of risk for HIV and other sexually transmitted infections (STIs) among female sex workers and their intimate, non-commercial male partners along the Mexico-U.S. border, we examined both partners’ perspectives on sex work and the ways in which couples discussed associated HIV/STI risks in their relationship. Our thematic analysis of individual and joint interviews conducted in 2010 and 2011 with 44 couples suggested that broader contexts of social and economic inequalities profoundly shaped partner perspectives of sex work. Although couples accepted sex work as an economic contribution to the relationship in light of limited alternatives and drug addiction, it exacted an emotional toll on both partners. Couples employed multiple strategies to cope with sex work, including psychologically disconnecting from their situation, telling “little lies,” avoiding the topic, and to a lesser extent, superficially discussing their risks. While such strategies served to protect both partners’ emotional health by upholding illusions of fidelity and avoiding potential conflict, non-disclosure of risk behaviors may exacerbate the potential for HIV/STI acquisition. Our work has direct implications for designing multi-level, couple-based health interventions. HubMed – addiction


[Compounds in tobacco smoke and pathogenesis of the diseases].

Nihon Rinsho. 2013 Mar; 71(3): 383-9
Sasaki J

Tobacco smoke is a complex mixture of more than 5,000 compounds including about 200 hazardous chemicals. These chemicals are distributed between the particulate and vapor phases of the smoke, and initiate and progress various human diseases. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons existing in tar can induce DNA damage by direct addiction and cause cancers in respiratory tract. Carbon monoxide must jam normal oxygen transport to tissue and enhance the severity of cardiovascular disease. Oxidative stress induced by hazardous compounds in smoke results in pulmonary disease. Nicotine promotes physical addiction to tobacco as well as causes pulmonary diseases, cardiovascular diseases or cancers to smokers. We should investigate compounds in smoke from new type of cigarette and must educate citizens to avoid risky compounds to our health. HubMed – addiction