Structural, Biological, and Pharmacological Strategies for the Inhibition of Nerve Growth Factor.

Structural, biological, and pharmacological strategies for the inhibition of nerve growth factor.

Filed under: Addiction Rehab

Neurochem Int. 2012 Oct 25;
Eibl JK, Strasser BC, Ross GM

Nerve growth factor (NGF) is critical for the development and maintenance of sympathetic and sensory neurons in the developing nervous system, including nociceptors. In the adult nervous system, NGF is known to produce significant pain signals by binding to the TrkA and p75NTR receptors. Several pathological pain disorders are associated with nerve growth factor dysregulation, including neuropathic pain, osteoarthritic pain, and hyperalgesia. Currently, clinical management of these pathologies has relied on the use of opioid and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAID). However, several chronic pain conditions demonstrate insensitivity to NSAID treatment or the development of detrimental opioid-related side effects, including addiction. As NGF plays an important role in pain generation; antibodies, small molecules and peptides have been designed to antagonize NGF. In this review, we discuss the structural biology of NGF ligand/receptor interaction, and we review current biological and pharmacological strategies to modulate NGF-related pathologies.
HubMed – addiction


Lesion of olfactory epithelium attenuates expression of morphine-induced behavioral sensitization and reinstatement of drug-primed conditioned place preference in mice.

Filed under: Addiction Rehab

Pharmacol Biochem Behav. 2012 Oct 23;
Niu H, Zheng Y, Huma T, Rizak JD, Li L, Wang G, Ren H, Xu L, Yang J, Ma Y, Lei H

Previous studies have shown that olfactory impairment by disrupting the olfactory epithelium prior to morphine administration attenuated the development addiction-related behaviors. However, it is unclear whether olfactory impairment will affect the expression of already established addiction-related behaviors. To address this issue, mice were conditioned with morphine to induce behavioral sensitization and condition placed preference (CPP). After an abstinence period, the animals were subjected to either an intranasal ZnSO(4) effusion (ZnE) or sham treatment with saline. Behavioral sensitization and CPP reinstatement were evaluated 24hrs later, as well as the expression of c-Fos protein, a marker of activated neural sites, in brain regions of interest. It was found that ZnE treatment attenuated morphine-induced behavioral sensitization and reinstatement of CPP. Compared to the saline-treated ones, the ZnE-treated animals showed reduced c-Fos expression in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) associated with behaviroal sensitization, and in the NAc, cingulate cortex, dentate gyrus, amygdala, lateral hypothalamus and ventral tegmental area associated with CPP reinstatement. Together, these results demonstrated that acute olfactory impairment could attenuate already established addiction-related behaviors and expression of c-Fos in drug addiction related brain regions, perhaps by affecting the coordination between reward and motivational systems in the brain.
HubMed – addiction


Qualitative Application of the Theory of Planned Behavior to Understand Beverage Consumption Behaviors among Adults.

Filed under: Addiction Rehab

J Acad Nutr Diet. 2012 Nov; 112(11): 1774-84
Zoellner J, Krzeski E, Harden S, Cook E, Allen K, Estabrooks PA

Despite strong scientific data indicating associations among sugar-sweetened beverages (SSB) and numerous adverse health outcomes, little is known about culturally specific beliefs and potential individual-level behavioral strategies to reduce SSB intake. The primary objective of this formative study targeting adults residing in rural southwest Virginia was to apply the Theory of Planned Behavior to investigate culturally specific attitudes, subjective norms, and perceived behavioral control constructs related to the consumption of SSB, water, and artificially sweetened beverages. Using a homogenous sampling strategy, eight focus groups were conducted with 54 adult participants who exceeded recommendations of <1 cup of SSB/day. An experienced moderator and co-moderator utilized a semi-structured script, grounded in the Theory of Planned Behavior, to execute the focus group. All focus groups were audiotaped and transcribed verbatim. Three researchers independently coded meaning units to the major themes and subsequently met to gain consensus in coding. Important beverage-specific themes emerged for attitudes, subjective norms, perceived behavioral control, and intentions. Across all beverages, the most notable themes included taste (n=161 meaning units), availability/convenience (n=95 meaning units), habit/addiction (n=57 meaning units), and cost (n=28 meaning units). Health consequences associated with beverages and water-quality issues also surfaced, as well as normative beliefs, including the influence of doctors and peers. The identified themes and subthemes provide critical insight into understanding culturally relevant context and beliefs associated with beverage consumption behaviors and helps inform the development and evaluation of future intervention efforts targeting SSB consumption in the health disparate region of southwest Virginia. HubMed – addiction



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