Striatal Development Involves a Switch in Gene Expression Networks, Followed by a Myelination Event: Implications for Neuropsychiatric Disease.

Striatal development involves a switch in gene expression networks, followed by a myelination event: Implications for neuropsychiatric disease.

Filed under: Addiction Rehab

Synapse. 2012 Nov 26;
Novak G, Fan T, O’Dowd BF, George SR

Because abnormal development of striatal neurons is thought to be part of pathology underlying major psychiatric illnesses, we studied the expression pattern of genes involved in striatal development and of genes comprising key striatal-specific pathways, during an active striatal maturation period, the first two postnatal weeks in rat. This period parallels human striatal development during the second trimester, when prenatal stress is though to lead to increased risk for neuropsychiatric disorders. In order to identify genes involved in this developmental process, we used subtractive hybridization, followed by quantitative real-time PCR., which allowed us to characterize the developmental expression of over 60 genes, many not previously known to play a role in neuromaturation. Of these 12 were novel transcripts, which did not match known genes, but which showed strict developmental expression and may play a role in striatal neurodevelopment. We show that during the first two postnatal weeks in rat, an early gene expression network, still lacking key striatal-specific signaling pathways, is downregulated and replaced by a mature gene expression network, containing key striatal-specific genes including the dopamine D1 and D2 receptors, conferring to these neurons their functional identity. Therefore, before this developmental switch, striatal neurons lack many of their key phenotypic characteristics. This maturation process is followed by a striking rise in expression of myelination genes, indicating a striatal-specific myelination event. Such strictly controlled developmental program has the potential to be a point of susceptibility to disruption by external factors. Indeed, this period is known to be a susceptibility period in both humans and rats. Synapse, 2012. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
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Dual Diagnosis Capability in Mental Health and Addiction Treatment Services: An Assessment of Programs Across Multiple State Systems.

Filed under: Addiction Rehab

Adm Policy Ment Health. 2012 Nov 27;
McGovern MP, Lambert-Harris C, Gotham HJ, Claus RE, Xie H

Despite increased awareness of the benefits of integrated services for persons with co-occurring substance use and psychiatric disorders, estimates of the availability of integrated services vary widely. The present study utilized standardized measures of program capacity to address co-occurring disorders, the dual diagnosis capability in addiction treatment and dual diagnosis capability in mental health treatment indexes, and sampled 256 programs across the United States. Approximately 18 % of addiction treatment and 9 % of mental health programs met criteria for dual diagnosis capable services. This is the first report on public access to integrated services using objective measures.
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Internet use, misuse, and addiction in adolescents: current issues and challenges.

Filed under: Addiction Rehab

Int J Adolesc Med Health. 2012; 24(4): 283-9
Greydanus DE, Greydanus MM

Abstract The Internet has revolutionized education and social communication in the 21st century. This article reviews the growing literature identifying a number of adolescents and young adults with a pathologically excessive Internet use leading to many potential consequences. Current research dilemmas in this area include that Internet addiction is a broad topic with no standard definition and no standard measurement tools. Management of youth with identified problematic Internet use or misuse centers on behavioral therapy and treatment of comorbidities. Pharmacologic approaches are limited at this time but are undergoing research, such as use of opioid antagonists and antidepressants in adults with pathological gambling. Efforts should be expanded on not only the education of all adolescents regarding the benefits but also the potential negative consequences of Internet use. It is vital that we do this for Generation Z, whereas Generation ALPHA will soon benefit or suffer from our efforts in this regard today.
HubMed – addiction



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