Stressful Life Events and the Onset of Chronic Diseases Among Australian Adults: Findings From a Longitudinal Survey.

Stressful life events and the onset of chronic diseases among Australian adults: findings from a longitudinal survey.

Filed under: Depression Treatment

Eur J Public Health. 2013 Feb 8;
Renzaho AM, Houng B, Oldroyd J, Nicholson JM, D’Esposito F, Oldenburg B

OBJECTIVES: This article examines the link between stressful life events and illness by considering both onset and reoccurrence of chronic illnesses. Using longitudinal data, we estimate the extent to which life events increase the likelihood of depression or anxiety, type 2 diabetes, cancer, coronary heart disease, circulatory disease, asthma and emphysema among Australian adults aged ?21 years. METHODS: Longitudinal data were obtained from the nationally representative Household, Income and Labour Dynamics in Australia panel survey collected at waves 3 (2003), 7 (2007) and 9 (2009). Participants (N = 9222) answered life events questions relating to the preceding 12 months and chronic illnesses lasting (or expected to last for) 6 months. Weighted pooled and random effects logistic regressions were performed, controlling for confounders and previous illness, and also performed on subsamples delineated by reported illnesses in wave 3. RESULTS: Work-related stress [odds ratio (OR) = 1.54, P < 0.001] was positively associated with the onset of depression or anxiety. Personal stress increased the likelihood of the onset of depression or anxiety (OR = 1.70, P < 0.001), type 2 diabetes (OR = 1.47, P < 0.05) and circulatory diseases (OR = 1.72, P < 0.05), while family-related stress increased the likelihood of the onset of heart (OR = 1.32, P < 0.01) and circulatory diseases (OR = 1.32, P < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Independent of personal characteristics and key health measures (body mass index, hypertension and disability), these findings suggest that work-related, personal and family-related stressful life events contribute to the development and/or course of chronic diseases. HubMed – depression


The toxicology and comorbidities of fatal cases involving quetiapine.

Filed under: Depression Treatment

Forensic Sci Med Pathol. 2013 Feb 9;
Pilgrim JL, Drummer OH

The use of quetiapine in Australia has increased rapidly in recent years. Anecdotal and post-marketing surveillance reports indicate an increase in quetiapine misuse in prisons as well as an increase in its availability on the black-market. This study examined a cohort of quetiapine-associated deaths occurring in Victoria, Australia, between 2001 and 2009, to determine the prevalence of deaths associated with this drug and to determine whether misuse represents a legitimate concern. Case details were extracted from the National Coronial Information System. There were 224 cases with an average age of 43 years of age (range 15-87 years). The cause of death was mostly drug toxicity (n = 114, 51 %), followed by natural disease (n = 60, 27 %), external injury (n = 31, 14 %) and unascertained causes (n = 19, 8 %). Depression and/or anxiety were common, observed in over a third of the cohort (80 cases, 36 %). About 20 % of cases did not mention a psychiatric diagnosis at all which raises the question of whether quetiapine had been prescribed correctly in these cases. Cardiovascular disease was the most commonly reported illness after mental disease. Quetiapine ranged in concentration from the limit of reporting (0.01 mg/L) to 110 mg/L. The median concentration of quetiapine was much lower in the natural disease deaths (0.25 mg/L) compared with drug caused deaths (0.7 mg/L). The most commonly co-administered drug was diazepam in 81 (36 %) cases. There were a small number of cases where quetiapine contributed to a death where it had not apparently been prescribed, including the death of a 15 year old boy and one of a 34 year old female. Overall, misuse of quetiapine did not appear to be a significant issue in this cohort; use of the drug only occasionally led to fatalities when used in excess or concomitantly with interacting drugs. However, considering that it is a recent social concern, it is possible that analysis of cases post 2009 would reveal more cases of quetiapine abuse. Close monitoring of quetiapine is therefore advised to prevent adverse outcomes, particularly in vulnerable populations such as substance abusers.
HubMed – depression


Non-fatal burden of disease due to mental disorders in the Netherlands.

Filed under: Depression Treatment

Soc Psychiatry Psychiatr Epidemiol. 2013 Feb 10;
Lokkerbol J, Adema D, de Graaf R, Ten Have M, Cuijpers P, Beekman A, Smit F

PURPOSE: To estimate the disease burden due to 15 mental disorders at both individual and population level. METHODS: Using a population-based survey (NEMESIS, N = 7,056) the number of years lived with disability per one million population were assessed. This was done with and without adjustment for comorbidity. RESULTS: At individual level, major depression, dysthymia, bipolar disorder, panic disorder, social phobia, eating disorder and schizophrenia are the disorders most markedly associated with health-related quality of life decrement. However, at population level, the number of affected people and the amount of time spent in an adverse health state become strong drivers of population ill-health. Simple phobia, social phobia, depression, dysthymia and alcohol dependence emerged as public health priorities. CONCLUSIONS: From a clinical perspective, we tend to give priority to the disorders that exact a heavy toll on individuals. This puts the spotlight on disorders such as bipolar disorder and schizophrenia. However, from a public health perspective, disorders such as simple phobia, social phobia and dysthymia-which are highly prevalent and tend to run a chronic course-are identified as leading causes of population ill-health, and thus, emerge as public health priorities.
HubMed – depression



Pragmatics of Change – Depression Treatment – Depression Treatment with Andrew T. Austin


Treatment Plans and Interventions for Depression and Anxiety Disorders
Includes CD-ROM with Reproducible Forms!This one-of-a-kind resource provides the busy practitioner with empirically supported trea…

Unified Protocol for Transdiagnostic Treatment of Emotional Disorders: Therapist Guide (Treatments That Work)
Emerging conceptualizations of major emotional disorders emphasize their commonalities rather than their differences, including co…

Overcoming Depression in Teens and Pre-Teens: A Parent’s Guide (Dr. T’s Living Well Series)
Depression is treatable! The first step is to recognize it. Then develop an “action plan” which includes a professional assessment…

Related Depression Treatment Information…