Strategies to Improve Recruitment and Retention of Older Stroke Survivors to a Randomized Clinical Exercise Trial.

Strategies to Improve Recruitment and Retention of Older Stroke Survivors to a Randomized Clinical Exercise Trial.

J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis. 2013 May 2;
Taylor-Piliae RE, Boros D, Coull BM

BACKGROUND: Relatively few exercise randomized clinical trials (RCTs) among stroke survivors have reported the effectiveness of recruitment and retention strategies, despite its central importance to study integrity. OBJECTIVE: Our objective is to examine recruitment and retention strategies used among a group of older community-dwelling stroke survivors for an exercise RCT. METHODS: Recruitment strategies were multidimensional using both paid (ie, newspaper, radio and, television) and unpaid advertisements (ie, staff visits, flyers, and brochures placed at outpatient rehabilitation centers, physician offices, and community facilities working with older adults; free media coverage of the study, presentations at stroke support groups, relatives/friends, and study Web site) to obtain referrals. Retention strategies centered on excellent communication, the study participants’ needs, and having dedicated study staff. Attrition rates and adherence to the intervention were used to examine the effectiveness of these retention strategies. RESULTS: A total of 393 referrals were received, 233 persons were screened, and 145 stroke survivors enrolled in the study. During 3 years of study recruitment, we achieved 97% of our enrollment target. We enrolled 62% of those screened. Study enrollment from paid advertising was 21.4% (n = 31), whereas unpaid advertisements resulted in 78.6% (n = 114) of our participants. Attrition was 10% (n = 14 dropouts), and adherence to the intervention was 85%. CONCLUSIONS: Recruitment and retention of participants in an exercise RCT are time and labor intensive. Multiple recruitment and retention strategies are required to ensure an adequate sample of community-dwelling stroke survivors. Many of these strategies are also relevant for exercise RCTs among adults with other chronic illnesses. HubMed – rehab centers


Differences in rate of functional decline across three dementia types.

Alzheimers Dement. 2013 May 2;
Gill DP, Hubbard RA, Koepsell TD, Borrie MJ, Petrella RJ, Knopman DS, Kukull WA

BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to estimate differences in rates of functional decline in Alzheimer’s disease (AD), dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB), and vascular dementia (VaD) and whether differences vary by age or sex. METHODS: Data came from 32 U.S. Alzheimer’s Disease Centers. The cohort of participants (n = 5848) were ?60 years of age and had clinical dementia with a primary etiologic diagnosis of probable AD, DLB, or probable VaD; a Clinical Dementia Rating-Sum of Boxes score <16; and a duration of symptoms ?10 years. Dementia diagnoses were assigned using standard criteria. Annual mean rate of change of the Functional Activities Questionnaire (FAQ) score was modeled using multiple linear regression with generalized estimating equations adjusted for demographics, comorbidities, years since onset, and cognitive status (mean follow-up = 2.0 years). RESULTS: FAQ declined more slowly over time in those with VaD compared with AD (difference in mean annual rate of change: -0.91; 95% confidence interval [CI]: -1.68, -0.14). VaD participants also declined at a slower rate than DLB participants, but this difference was not statistically significant (-0.61; 95% CI: -1.45, 0.24). There was no significant difference between DLB and AD. Within each group, rate of decline was more rapid for the youngest participants. CONCLUSIONS: In this sample, findings suggested that VaD patients declined in their functional abilities at a slower rate compared with AD patients and that there were no significant differences in rate of functional decline between patients with DLB compared with those with either AD or VaD. These results may provide guidance to clinicians about average expected rates of functional decline in three common dementia types. HubMed – rehab centers


Effect of Sertraline on Risk of Falling in Older Adults with Psychotic Depression on Olanzapine: Results of a Randomized Placebo-Controlled Trial.

Am J Geriatr Psychiatry. 2013 May 1;
Flint AJ, Iaboni A, Mulsant BH, Rothschild AJ, Whyte EM, Meyers BS,

OBJECTIVE: Observational studies report that selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) antidepressants are associated with an increased risk of falls in the elderly, but these studies may overestimate drug-specific risk because of confounding. A randomized controlled trial (RCT) is the optimal way to assess the causal relationship between use of an SSRI and falls. We therefore analyzed data from a RCT of the treatment of psychotic depression, to examine whether combined olanzapine and sertraline interacted with older age to increase the risk of falling compared with olanzapine plus placebo. DESIGN: Double-blind placebo-controlled RCT. SETTING: Four academic medical centers. PARTICIPANTS: Two hundred fifty-nine patients with major depressive disorder with psychotic features (N = 117 aged 18-59 years and N = 142 aged 60 years or older). INTERVENTION: Twelve weeks of randomized double-blind treatment with olanzapine plus sertraline or olanzapine plus placebo. MEASUREMENTS: Proportion of participants who fell at least once. RESULTS: Older participants were significantly more likely than younger participants to fall. Among older participants, the odds ratio of falling with olanzapine plus sertraline versus olanzapine plus placebo was 1.56 (95% confidence interval: 0.63-3.83). There was not a statistically significant treatment effect or treatment × age interaction with respect to the proportion of participants falling. These negative results may have been due to low statistical power. CONCLUSION: Evaluating the association between SSRIs and falls in a RCT is limited by the large sample size that is required. An alternative approach is to examine the effect of an SSRI on measures of postural stability and gait that are valid markers of risk of falling. HubMed – rehab centers


Barriers to cardiac rehabilitation use in Canada versus Brazil.

J Cardiopulm Rehabil Prev. 2013 May-Jun; 33(3): 173-9
de Melo Ghisi GL, Oh P, Benetti M, Grace SL

: Despite its well-established benefits, cardiac rehabilitation (CR) is greatly underutilized globally. Barriers to its utilization have been identified in high-income countries. Given the growing epidemic of noncommunicable diseases in low- to middle-income countries, the identification of barriers to use of these low-cost interventions is warranted. The aim of this study was to describe and compare barriers to CR use in Brazilian and Canadian cardiac outpatients.: Two cardiac samples consisting of 237 Brazilian (recruited from 2 CR centers in southern Brazil) and 1434 Canadian (recruited from 11 community and academic hospitals in Ontario) outpatients were compared cross-sectionally. Barriers were assessed by using the Cardiac Rehabilitation Barriers Scale, psychometrically validated in English and Portuguese. Mann-Whitney U tests were used to compare barriers between samples.: Overall, 139 (58.6%) Brazilian and 779 (54.3%) Canadian respondents were enrolled in CR. The mean total barriers score for Brazilian respondents was 1.71 ± 0.63, and 2.37 ± 1.0 (P < .01) for the Canadians. For 17 of 21 barriers, Canadians reported significantly greater barriers than Brazilians (P < .02). As their greatest barriers, Canadians rated already exercising at home or in the community and personal travel, while Brazilians identified distance to and cost of the CR program.: Despite the significantly lower availability of CR in Brazil and the universal health care system in Canada, cardiac outpatients in Canada perceived significantly greater CR barriers. Arguably, however, these barriers were more modifiable. HubMed – rehab centers



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