Stereotactic Surgery for Eating Disorders.

Stereotactic surgery for eating disorders.

Surg Neurol Int. 2013; 4(Suppl 3): S164-9
Sun B, Liu W

EATING DISORDERS (EDS) ARE A GROUP OF SEVERELY IMPAIRED EATING BEHAVIORS, WHICH INCLUDE THREE SUBGROUPS: anorexia nervosa (AN), bulimia nervosa (BN), and ED not otherwise specified (EDNOS). The precise mechanism of EDs is still unclear and the disorders cause remarkable agony for the patients and their families. Although there are many available treatment methods for EDs today, such as family therapy, cognitive behavioral therapy, medication, psychotherapy, and so on, almost half of the patients are refractory to all current medical treatment and never fully recover. For treatment-refractory EDs, stereotactic surgery may be an alternative therapy. This review discusses the history of stereotactic surgery, the modern procedures, and the mostly used targets of stereotactic surgery in EDs. In spite of the limited application of stereotactic surgery in ED nowadays, stereotactic lesion and deep brain stimulation (DBS) are promising treatments with the development of modern functional imaging techniques and the increasing understanding of its mechanism in the future. HubMed – eating disorders


Eating Disorders with and without Comorbid Depression and Anxiety: Similarities and Differences in a Clinical Sample of Children and Adolescents.

Eur Eat Disord Rev. 2013 May 16;
Hughes EK, Goldschmidt AB, Labuschagne Z, Loeb KL, Sawyer SM, Grange DL

OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to describe and compare the demographic and clinical characteristics of children and adolescents with an eating disorder (ED) and comorbid depression or anxiety. METHOD: Data were drawn from intake assessments of children and adolescents at a specialist ED clinic. Demographic characteristics (e.g. age and gender) and clinical characteristics (e.g. body mass, binge eating and purging) were compared between 217 ED participants without comorbidity, 32 with comorbid anxiety, 86 with comorbid depression and 36 with comorbid anxiety and depression. RESULTS: The groups with comorbid depression had more complex and severe presentations compared with those with an ED and no comorbid disorder and those with comorbid anxiety alone, especially in regard to binge eating, purging, dietary restraint and weight/shape concerns. DISCUSSION: Depression and anxiety were differentially related to clinical characteristics of EDs. The findings have implications for understanding the relations between these disorders and their potential to impact outcome of ED treatments. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association. HubMed – eating disorders


Alterations in Brain Structures Related to Taste Reward Circuitry in Ill and Recovered Anorexia Nervosa and in Bulimia Nervosa.

Am J Psychiatry. 2013 May 17;
Frank GK, Shott ME, Hagman JO, Mittal VA

OBJECTIVE The pathophysiology of anorexia nervosa remains obscure, but structural brain alterations could be functionally important biomarkers. The authors assessed taste pleasantness and reward sensitivity in relation to brain structure, which may be related to food avoidance commonly seen in eating disorders. METHOD The authors used functional MRI to study gray and white matter volumes in women with current restricting-type anorexia nervosa (N=19), women recovered from restricting-type anorexia nervosa (N=24), women with bulimia nervosa (N=19), and healthy comparison women (N=24). RESULTS All eating disorder groups exhibited increased gray matter volume of the medial orbitofrontal cortex (gyrus rectus). Manual tracing confirmed larger gyrus rectus volume, and volume predicted taste pleasantness ratings across all groups. Analyses also indicated other morphological differences between diagnostic categories. Antero-ventral insula gray matter volumes were increased on the right side in the anorexia nervosa and recovered anorexia nervosa groups and on the left side in the bulimia nervosa group relative to the healthy comparison group. Dorsal striatum volumes were reduced in the recovered anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa groups and predicted sensitivity to reward in all three eating disorder groups. The eating disorder groups also showed reduced white matter in right temporal and parietal areas relative to the healthy comparison group. The results held when a range of covariates, such as age, depression, anxiety, and medications, were controlled for. CONCLUSION Brain structure in the medial orbitofrontal cortex, insula, and striatum is altered in eating disorders and suggests altered brain circuitry that has been associated with taste pleasantness and reward value. HubMed – eating disorders