Stable Isotope Evidence of Meat Eating and Hunting Specialization in Adult Male Chimpanzees.

Stable isotope evidence of meat eating and hunting specialization in adult male chimpanzees.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2013 Mar 25;
Fahy GE, Richards M, Riedel J, Hublin JJ, Boesch C

Observations of hunting and meat eating in our closest living relatives, chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes), suggest that among primates, regular inclusion of meat in the diet is not a characteristic unique to Homo. Wild chimpanzees are known to consume vertebrate meat, but its actual dietary contribution is, depending on the study population, often either unknown or minimal. Constraints on continual direct observation throughout the entire hunting season mean that behavioral observations are limited in their ability to accurately quantify meat consumption. Here we present direct stable isotope evidence supporting behavioral observations of frequent meat eating among wild adult male chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes verus) in Taï National Park, Côte d’Ivoire. Meat eating among some of the male chimpanzees is significant enough to result in a marked isotope signal detectable on a short-term basis in their hair keratin and long-term in their bone collagen. Although both adult males and females and juveniles derive their dietary protein largely from daily fruit and seasonal nut consumption, our data indicate that some adult males also derive a large amount of dietary protein from hunted meat. Our results reinforce behavioral observations of male-dominated hunting and meat eating in adult Taï chimpanzees, suggesting that sex differences in food acquisition and consumption may have persisted throughout hominin evolution, rather than being a recent development in the human lineage. HubMed – eating


Prevalence and Reasons for Introducing Infants Early to Solid Foods: Variations by Milk Feeding Type.

Pediatrics. 2013 Mar 25;
Clayton HB, Li R, Perrine CG, Scanlon KS

OBJECTIVE:To examine the prevalence of, and mothers’ self-reported reasons for, introducing solid foods to infants earlier than recommended (aged <4 months) and the variation in reasons for early introduction by milk feeding type.METHODS:The study included 1334 mothers who participated in the national longitudinal Infant Feeding Practices Study II (2005-2007). Monthly 7-day food-frequency questions throughout infancy were used to determine infant age at solid food introduction and to classify infant's milk feeding at introduction as breast milk only, formula only, or mixed. Reasons for introducing solid foods at age <4 months were assessed through maternal responses to a list of 12 potential reasons. Analyses included descriptive statistics and multivariable logistic regression.RESULTS:Overall, 40.4% of mothers introduced solid foods before age 4 months. Prevalence varied by milk feeding type (24.3%, 52.7%, and 50.2% for breastfed, formula-fed, and mixed-fed infants, respectively). The most commonly cited reasons for early introduction of solid food were as follows: "My baby was old enough," "My baby seemed hungry," "I wanted to feed my baby something in addition to breast milk or formula," "My baby wanted the food I ate," "A doctor or other health care professional said my baby should begin eating solid food," and "It would help my baby sleep longer at night." Four of these reasons varied by milk feeding type.CONCLUSIONS:Our findings highlight the high prevalence of early introduction of solids and provide details on why mothers introduced solid foods early. HubMed – eating


Partial trisomy 18q and epileptic spasms induced by eating associated with bilateral opercular dysplasia.

Am J Med Genet A. 2013 Mar 25;
d’Orsi G, Pascarella MG, Pansini A, Buonadonna AL, Trivisano M, Pacillo F, Carapelle E, Demaio V, Minervini M, Gentile M, Specchio LM

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[Child and adolescent obesity, psychosocial consequences and treatment strategies].

Bundesgesundheitsblatt Gesundheitsforschung Gesundheitsschutz. 2013 Apr; 56(4): 532-8
Hartmann AS, Hilbert A

Being overweight and obese in childhood and adolescence is associated with various somatic and psychosocial sequelae. Psychosocial problems can negatively influence the future weight trajectory. Therefore, weight reduction or stabilization should be complemented by the treatment of significant psychosocial problems. This review provides an overview of the psychosocial problems associated with being overweight and obese in childhood and adolescence. Evidence on weight-related stigmatization and discrimination, eating disorder symptoms, general psychopathology, impaired quality of life, lowered self-esteem, social skill deficits, as well as academic problems is summarized. Furthermore, state-of-the-art diagnostic and therapeutic procedures for the psychosocial problems are summarized. Future research should focus on the development of interventions targeting the destigmatization of obesity, as experiences of stigmatization and discrimination likely aggravate the psychosocial sequelae of overweight and obesity. HubMed – eating