Specific Amino Acids Inhibit Food Intake via the Area Postrema or Vagal Afferents.

Specific Amino Acids Inhibit Food Intake via the Area Postrema or Vagal Afferents.

J Physiol. 2013 Jul 29;
Jordi J, Herzog B, Camargo SM, Boyle CN, Lutz TA, Verrey F

To maintain nutrient homeostasis the central nervous system integrates signals that promote or inhibit eating. The supply of vital amino acids is tuned by adjusting food intake according to its dietary protein content. We hypothesized that this effect is based on the sensing of individual amino acids as a signal to control food intake. Here, we show that food intake was most potently reduced by oral L-arginine (Arg), L-lysine (Lys) and L-glutamic acid (Glu) compared to all other 17 proteogenic amino acids in rats. These three amino acids induced neuronal activity in the area postrema and the nucleus of the solitary tract. Surgical lesion of the area postrema abolished the anorectic response to Arg and Glu, whereas vagal afferent lesion prevented the response to Lys. These three amino acids also provoked gastric distension by differentially altering gastric secretion and/or emptying. Importantly, these peripheral mechanical vagal stimuli were dissociated from the amino acids’ effect on food intake. Thus, Arg, Lys and Glu had a selective impact on food processing and intake suggesting them as direct sensory input to assess dietary protein content and quality in vivo. Overall, this study reveals novel amino acid specific mechanisms for the control of food intake and of gastrointestinal function. HubMed – eating

Comparison between normal-weight and overweight bulimic patients.

Eat Weight Disord. 2013 Jul 30;
Rotella F, Castellini G, Montanelli L, Rotella CM, Faravelli C, Ricca V

Body mass index has been often reported in the normal range in bulimic patients and the literature considering the association between bulimia nervosa (BN) and overweight is scant. The aim of the present study was to compare two groups of normal and overweight BN patients, carefully assessed for several clinical and psychopathological features.In the present cross-sectional study, a consecutive series of 124 female BN patients was divided into two groups according to their BMI: normal-weight group (with BMI ?25; N = 91) and overweight group (with BMI >25; N = 33). The two clinical groups were evaluated and compared, to detect similarities and differences in terms of psychopathological and clinical features. Patients were assessed by means of the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV, the Eating Disorder Examination Questionnaire, the Emotional Eating Scale, the Body Uneasiness Test and the Symptom Checklist 90.A relevant percentage of BN clinical patients were overweight. Normal-weight and overweight subjects did not differ in terms of eating disorder-specific psychopathology, with the exception of body uneasiness, which was higher in BN overweight patients. Among normal-weight patients, a significant correlation between emotional eating and binge eating frequency was observed, while this correlation was absent in BN overweight patients.Our results stress the relevance of being overweight in a significant percentage of bulimic subjects and suggest that clinicians should be aware of the relevance of being overweight in these patients. HubMed – eating

Small heat shock proteins and their role in meat tenderness: A review.

Meat Sci. 2013 Jun 16; 96(1): 26-40
Lomiwes D, Farouk MM, Wiklund E, Young OA

The eating quality of meat is a result of complex interactions between the biological traits and biochemical processes during the conversion of muscle to meat. It was hypothesised that muscles inevitably engage towards apoptotic cell death due to the termination of oxygen and nutrient supply to the muscle following exsanguination. Thus, factors that regulate the process of apoptotic cell death of muscle cells are believed to ultimately influence meat quality. Proteomic studies have associated the regulation of small heat shock proteins (sHSPs) with various meat quality attributes including tenderness, colour, juiciness and flavour. Due to the anti-apoptotic and chaperone functions of sHSPs, they are proposed to be involved with the eating quality of meat. In this review, we discuss the possible chaperone and anti-apoptotic role of sHSPs during the conversion of muscle to meat and consider the repercussions of this on the development of meat tenderness. HubMed – eating

Westernization, Intuitive Eating, and BMI: An Exploration of Jordanian Adolescents.

Int Q Community Health Educ. 2012; 33(3): 275-87
Wirtz AL, Madanat HN

The purpose of this study was to validate the Arabic-version of the adapted Marin Bidimensional Acculturation Scale and investigate the relationship between Westernization, intuitive eating, and body mass index (BMI) in a sample of Jordanian female adolescents. A total of 199 subjects between the ages of 11-18 were surveyed. Participants who scored higher on the Arabic domain exhibited higher Intuitive Eating Scale (IES) intrinsic subscale scores (r = 0.147, P = 0.048) suggesting that those who are more orientated toward Arabic culture may respond more naturally to physical hunger cues than their more Westernized counterparts. Reinforcing intuitive eating attitudes and behaviors and emphasizing body ideals resonant with the Arabic culture may propagate the continuation of intuitive eating in this population, potentially reducing the risk of obesity and other nutrition-related non-communicable diseases. HubMed – eating

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