Socioeconomic Determinants of Non-Communicable-Diseases Among the Cypriot Population: Questionnaire Study.

Socioeconomic determinants of non-communicable-diseases among the Cypriot population: questionnaire study.

Filed under: Addiction Rehab

JRSM Short Rep. 2012 Oct; 3(10): 71
Kiliari N, Theodosopoulou E, Papanastasiou E, Charalambous A

To investigate the extent to which the socioeconomic status of Cypriots is associated with the lifetime prevalence of self-reported non-communicable disease (NCDs), with emphasis on those accounting for most Death and Disability-adjusted Life Years (DALYs) among the population, including cardiovascular disease (CVD), metabolic risks and neuropsychiatric disorders.A nationally based survey conducted through personal interviews, using a structured questionnaire design.Cyprus rural and urban areas (excluding Turkish-occupied areas).Four hundred and sixty-five Cypriot adults of an average age of 53 years.Lifetime prevalence of self-reported NCDs.Most self-reported NCDs were shown to have significant associations with socioeconomic status, defined for this study by level of education and family income. Education was significantly inversely associated with CVD (18.1% at elementary education level (EE); 2.7% at high school education level (HE); and 1.7% at University/College education level (UE)), hypertension (23.4% at EE; 8.6% at HE; and 2.6% at UE), hypercholesterolaemia (12.8% at EE; 7.1% at HE; and 5.2% at UE), obesity (10.7% at EE; 4.7% at HE; and 3.5% at UE), diabetes (13.8% at EE; 2.4% at HE; and 0.9% at UE), and drug addiction (7.6% at EE; 1.6% at HE; and 0.0% at UE). Depression was more frequent amongst middle level graduates (3.2% at EE; 5.1% at HE; and 2.6% at UE). Income was significantly negatively associated with CVD (r = -0.130, p = 0.005), stress (r = -0.103, p = 0.028) and drug addiction (r = -0.117, p = 0.012), and significantly positively associated with the ‘no problems’ statement (r = 0.201, p = 0.000) which was reported by almost two fifths of the population. Worth noting is stress which, demonstrating no socioeconomic discrimination, was reported by high percentages of the population (17.2% of the sample).Although with some limitations, this study has provided initial evidence for the existence of socioeconomically determined health inequalities, which may have potentially important implications for understanding the deeper aetiology of common NCDs and for informing public policies. More research in this area is required to reveal the magnitude of NCDS-socioeconomic relation.
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Morphine and microRNA Activity: Is There a Relation with Addiction?

Filed under: Addiction Rehab

Front Genet. 2012; 3: 223
Rodríguez RE

When we talk about drug addiction, we are really dealing with an extremely complex system in which there still remain many unknowns and where many empty spaces or missing links are still present. Recent studies have identified changes in the expression profiles of several specific miRNAs which affect the interactions between these molecules and their targets in various illnesses, including addiction, and which may serve as valuable targets for more efficient therapies. In this review, we summarize results which clearly demonstrate that several morphine-related miRNAs have roles in the mechanisms that define addiction. In this regard, morphine has been shown to have an important role in the regulation of different miRNAs, such as miR-let-7 [which works as a mediator of the movement of the mu opioid receptor (MOR) mRNA into P-bodies, leading to translational repression], miR-23b (involved in linking MOR expression and morphine treatment at the post-transcriptional level), and miR-190 (a key post-transcriptional repressor of neurogenic differentiation, NeuroD). Fentanyl increases NeuroD levels by reducing the amount of miR-190, but morphine does not affect the levels of NeuroD. We also discuss the relationship between morphine, miRNAs, and the immune system, based on the discovery that morphine treatment of monocytes led to a decrease in several anti-HIV miRNAs (mir-28, 125b, 150, and 382). This review is centered on miR-133b and its possible involvement in addiction through the effects of morphine. We establish the importance of miR-133b as a regulatory factor by summarizing its activity in different pathological processes, especially cancer. Using the zebrafish as a research model, we discuss the relationship between mir-133b, the dopaminergic system, and morphine, considering: (1) that morphine modulates the expression of miR-133b and of its target transcript Pitx3, (2) the role of the zebrafish mu opioid receptor (zfMOR) in morphine-induced regulation of miR-133b, which depends on ERK1/2, (3) that morphine regulates miR-133b in hippocampal neurons, and (4) the role of delta opioid receptors in morphine-induced regulation of miR-133b. We conclude that the control of miR-133b levels may be a mechanism for the development of addiction to morphine, or other drugs of abuse that increase dopaminergic levels in the extracellular space. These results show that miR-133b is a possible new target for the design of new treatments against addictive disorders.
HubMed – addiction


Neural correlates of time versus money in product evaluation.

Filed under: Addiction Rehab

Front Psychol. 2012; 3: 372
Lehmann S, Reimann M

The common saying “time is money” reflects the widespread belief in many people’s everyday life that time is valuable like money. Psychologically and neurophysiologically, however, these concepts seem to be quite different. This research replicates prior behavioral investigations by showing that merely mentioning “time” (compared to merely mentioning “money”) leads participants to evaluate a product more positively. Beyond this finding, the present functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) experiment provides novel insight into the neurophysiological underpinnings of this behavioral effect by showing that more positive product evaluations in the time primes (compared to money primes) are preceded by increased activation in the insula. Our data, therefore, support the idea of a time mindset that is different from a money mindset. Studies on the functional neuroanatomy of the insula have implicated this brain area in distinct but related psychological phenomena such as urging, addiction, loss aversion, and love. These functions imply greater personal connection between the consumer and a target subject or object and, thus, help explain why time-primed consumers rate products more positively.
HubMed – addiction



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