Significant Impact of the MTHFR Polymorphisms and Haplotypes on Male Infertility Risk.

Significant Impact of the MTHFR Polymorphisms and Haplotypes on Male Infertility Risk.

PLoS One. 2013; 8(7): e69180
Gupta N, Sarkar S, David A, Gangwar PK, Gupta R, Khanna G, Sankhwar SN, Khanna A, Rajender S

Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) converts 5,10-methylene tetrahydrofolate to 5-methyl tetrahydrofolate and affects the activity of cellular cycles participating in nucleotide synthesis, DNA repair, genome stability, maintenance of methyl pool, and gene regulation. Genetically compromised MTHFR activity has been suggested to affect male fertility. The objective of the present study was to find the impact on infertility risk of c.203G>A, c.1298A>C, and c.1793G>A polymorphisms in the MTHFR gene.PCR-RFLP and DNA sequencing were used to genotype the common SNPs in the MTHFR gene in 630 infertile and 250 fertile males. Chi-square test was applied for statistical comparison of genotype data. Linkage disequilibrium between the SNPs and the frequency of common haplotypes were assessed using Haploview software. Biochemical levels of total homocysteine (tHcy) and folic acid were measured. Meta-analysis on c.1298A>C polymorphism was performed using data from ten studies, comprising 2734 cases and 2737 controls.c.203G>A and c.1298A>C were found to be unrelated to infertility risk. c.1793G>A was protective against infertility (P?=?0.0008). c.677C>T and c.1793G>A were in significant LD (D’?=?0.9). Folic acid and tHcy level did not correlate with male infertility. Pooled estimate on c.1298A>C data from all published studies including our data showed no association of this polymorphism with male infertility (Odds ratio?=?1.035, P?=?0.56), azoospermia (Odds ratio?=?0.97, P?=?0.74), or oligoasthenoteratozoospermia (Odds ratio?=?0.92, p?=?0.29). Eight haplotypes with more than 1% frequency were detected, of which CCGA was protective against infertility (p?=?0.02), but the significance of the latter was not seen after applying Bonferroni correction.Among MTHFR polymorphisms, c.203G>A and c.1298A>C do not affect infertility risk and c.1793G>A is protective against infertility. Haplotype analysis suggested that risk factors on the MTHFR locus do not extend too long on the DNA string. HubMed – drug

HIV behind Bars: Human Immunodeficiency Virus Cluster Analysis and Drug Resistance in a Reference Correctional Unit from Southern Brazil.

PLoS One. 2013; 8(7): e69033
Prellwitz IM, Alves BM, Ikeda ML, Kuhleis D, Picon PD, Jarczewski CA, Osório MR, Sánchez A, Seuánez HN, Larouzé B, Soares MA, Soares EA

People deprived of liberty in prisons are at higher risk of infection by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) due to their increased exposure through intravenous drug use, unprotected sexual activity, tattooing in prison and blood exposure in fights and rebellions. Yet, the contribution of intramural HIV transmission to the epidemic is scarcely known, especially in low- and middle-income settings. In this study, we surveyed 1,667 inmates incarcerated at Presídio Central de Porto Alegre, located in southern Brazil, for HIV infection and molecular characterization. The HIV seroprevalence was 6.6% (110/1,667). Further analyses were carried out on 40 HIV-seropositive inmates to assess HIV transmission clusters and drug resistance within the facility with the use of molecular and phylogenetic techniques. The molecular epidemiology of HIV-1 subtypes observed was similar to the one reported for the general population in southern Brazil, with the predominance of HIV-1 subtypes C, B, CRF31_BC and unique BC recombinants. In particular, the high rate (24%) of URF_BC found here may reflect multiple exposures of the population investigated to HIV infection. We failed to find HIV-infected inmates sharing transmission clusters with each other. Importantly, the analysis of HIV-1 pol genomic fragments evidenced high rates of HIV primary and secondary (acquired) drug resistance and an alarming proportion of virologic failure among patients under treatment, unveiling suboptimal access to antiretroviral therapy (ARV), low ARV adherence and dissemination of drug resistant HIV strains in primary infections. Our results call for immediate actions of public authority to implement preventive measures, serological screening and, for HIV-seropositive subjects, clinical and treatment follow-up in order to control HIV infection and limit the spread of drug resistance strains in Brazilian prisons. HubMed – drug

Resistance Mutations and CTL Epitopes in Archived HIV-1 DNA of Patients on Antiviral Treatment: Toward a New Concept of Vaccine.

PLoS One. 2013; 8(7): e69029
Papuchon J, Pinson P, Lazaro E, Reigadas S, Guidicelli G, Taupin JL, Neau D, Fleury H,

Eleven patients responding successfully to first-line antiretroviral therapy (ART) were investigated for proviral drug resistance mutations (DRMs) in RT by ultra-deep pyrosequencing (UDPS). After molecular typing of the class I alleles A and B, the CTL epitopes in the Gag, Nef and Pol regions of the provirus were sequenced and compared to the reference HXB2 HIV-1 epitopes. They were then matched with the HLA alleles with determination of theoretical affinity (TA). For 3 patients, the results could be compared with an RNA sample of the circulating virus at initiation of therapy. Five out of 11 patients exhibited DRMs by UDPS. The issue is whether a therapeutic switch is relevant in these patients by taking into account the identity of the archived resistance mutations. When the archived CTL epitopes were determined on the basis of the HLA alleles, different patterns were observed. Some epitopes were identical to those reported for the reference with the same TA, while others were mutated with a decrease in TA. In 2 cases, an epitope was observed as a combination of subpopulations at entry and was retrieved as a single population with lower TA at success. With regard to immunological stimulation and given the variability of the archived CTL epitopes, we propose a new concept of curative vaccine based on identification of HIV-1 CTL epitopes after prior sequencing of proviral DNA and matching with HLA class I alleles. HubMed – drug

Antiviral Activity of Glycyrrhizin against Hepatitis C Virus In Vitro.

PLoS One. 2013; 8(7): e68992
Matsumoto Y, Matsuura T, Aoyagi H, Matsuda M, Hmwe SS, Date T, Watanabe N, Watashi K, Suzuki R, Ichinose S, Wake K, Suzuki T, Miyamura T, Wakita T, Aizaki H

Glycyrrhizin (GL) has been used in Japan to treat patients with chronic viral hepatitis, as an anti-inflammatory drug to reduce serum alanine aminotransferase levels. GL is also known to exhibit various biological activities, including anti-viral effects, but the anti-hepatitis C virus (HCV) effect of GL remains to be clarified. In this study, we demonstrated that GL treatment of HCV-infected Huh7 cells caused a reduction of infectious HCV production using cell culture-produced HCV (HCVcc). To determine the target step in the HCV lifecycle of GL, we used HCV pseudoparticles (HCVpp), replicon, and HCVcc systems. Significant suppressions of viral entry and replication steps were not observed. Interestingly, extracellular infectivity was decreased, and intracellular infectivity was increased. By immunofluorescence and electron microscopic analysis of GL treated cells, HCV core antigens and electron-dense particles had accumulated on endoplasmic reticulum attached to lipid droplet (LD), respectively, which is thought to act as platforms for HCV assembly. Furthermore, the amount of HCV core antigen in LD fraction increased. Taken together, these results suggest that GL inhibits release of infectious HCV particles. GL is known to have an inhibitory effect on phospholipase A2 (PLA2). We found that group 1B PLA2 (PLA2G1B) inhibitor also decreased HCV release, suggesting that suppression of virus release by GL treatment may be due to its inhibitory effect on PLA2G1B. Finally, we demonstrated that combination treatment with GL augmented IFN-induced reduction of virus in the HCVcc system. GL is identified as a novel anti-HCV agent that targets infectious virus particle release. HubMed – drug