Self-Efficacy Beliefs and Eating Behavior in Adolescent Girls at-Risk for Excess Weight Gain and Binge Eating Disorder.

Self-efficacy beliefs and eating behavior in adolescent girls at-risk for excess weight gain and binge eating disorder.

Int J Eat Disord. 2013 Jul 23;
Glasofer DR, Haaga DA, Hannallah L, Field SE, Kozlosky M, Reynolds J, Yanovski JA, Tanofsky-Kraff M

To examine the relationship between self-related agency beliefs and observed eating behavior in adolescent girls with loss of control (LOC) eating.One-hundred eleven adolescent girls (14.5?±?1.7 years; BMI: 27.1?±?2.6 kg/m(2) ) were administered the General Self-Efficacy Scale and the Weight Efficacy Lifestyle Questionnaire (WEL). Adolescents then participated in a laboratory test meal.Greater general and eating self-efficacy were associated with fewer episodes of LOC eating. General self-efficacy was inversely related to total intake at the meal (p?HubMed – eating

The Reporting of Fidelity Measures in Primary Prevention Programmes for Eating Disorders in Schools.

Eur Eat Disord Rev. 2013 Jul 24;
Schober I, Sharpe H, Schmidt U

The aim of this paper was to examine the extent to which controlled trials of face-to-face school-based primary prevention for eating disorders report their strategies for maintaining fidelity.A systematic review located 38 articles eligible for inclusion. These studies were assessed using 18 criteria for reporting fidelity maintenance strategies based on those recommended by the Treatment Fidelity Workgroup of the National Institute of Health Behavior Change Consortium.Fidelity reporting was generally poor. The studies reported between 22% and 56% of fidelity criteria. Detailed reporting of curriculum-as-usual control conditions was generally lacking, as were methods to ensure high-quality training and mechanisms to assess provider adherence to intervention protocol.Poor fidelity assessment and reporting is a problem in school-based primary prevention programmes for eating disorders. Recommendations for improving fidelity maintenance and reporting practices are provided. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association. HubMed – eating

The flavor of pomegranate fruit: a review.

J Sci Food Agric. 2013 Jul 23;
Mayuoni-Kirshinbaum L, Porat R

Despite the increasing commercial importance of pomegranate, especially because of it’s recently discovered health-promoting benefits, relatively little is yet known regarding its sensory quality and flavor preferences, or about the biochemical constituents that determine its sensory characteristics. The perceived flavor of pomegranate fruit results from the combination of various taste, aroma and mouth-feel sensations. The taste is governed mainly by the presence of sugars (glucose and fructose) and organic acids (primarily citric and malic acids). The aroma evolves from the presence of dozens of volatiles, including alcohols, aldehydes, ketones, and terpenes, which provide a mixture of various ‘green’, ‘woody’, ‘earthy’, ‘fruity’, ‘floral’, ‘sweet’ and ‘musty’ notes. In addition, the sensory satisfaction during the eating of pomegranate arils is complemented by various mouth-feel sensations, including seed hardness and astringency sensations. In the present review we will describe the sensory quality and flavor preferences of pomegranate fruit, including the genetic diversity in flavor characteristics among distinct varieties. In addition, we will describe the dynamic changes that occur in fruit flavor during fruit ripening and postharvest storage. HubMed – eating

Effect of Consecutive Intragastric Balloon (BIB®) Plus Diet Versus Single BIB® Plus Diet on Eating Disorders Not Otherwise Specified (EDNOS) in Obese Patients.

Obes Surg. 2013 Jul 24;
Genco A, Maselli R, Frangella F, Cipriano M, Paone E, Meuti V, Baglio G, Casella G, Lorenzo M, Basso N, Adriano R

Eating disorders are a group of conditions characterised by abnormal eating habits. Greater than 50 % of patients with eating disorders have an ‘eating disorder not otherwise specified’ (EDNOS). No specific tools exist to evaluate EDNOS, and patients are identified only with a diagnosis of exclusion from the other eating disorders. The BioEnterics® Intragastric Balloon (BIB®) is used worldwide as a short-term treatment option in obese patients. A new frequency score was used to evaluate the influence of double consecutive BIB® treatment compared with single BIB® treatment followed by diet on four categories of EDNOS (grazing, emotional eating, sweet-eating and after-dinner grazing).A prospective study allocated 50 obese patients (age range 25-35, BMI range 40.0-44.9) into two groups: BIB® (6 months) followed by diet therapy (7 months; group A (N?=?25)) and BIB® placement for 6 months followed by another BIB® for 6 months, with a 1-month interval between placement (group B (N?=?25)). Baseline demographics were similar across both groups.At the time of removal of the first BIB® device, EDNOS scores in both groups were not significantly different, but decreased significantly from baseline. By the end of the study, all EDNOS scores were significantly lower in patients undergoing consecutive BIB®, compared with single BIB® followed by diet therapy.The placement of an intragastric balloon in obese patients allows for a reduction in the intensity of grazing, emotional eating, sweet-eating and after-dinner grazing. A more significant reduction in the EDNOS score was observed with two consecutive BIBs®. HubMed – eating

Mixed emotions: the contribution of alexithymia to the emotional symptoms of autism.

Transl Psychiatry. 2013; 3: e285
Bird G, Cook R

It is widely accepted that autism is associated with disordered emotion processing and, in particular, with deficits of emotional reciprocity such as impaired emotion recognition and reduced empathy. However, a close examination of the literature reveals wide heterogeneity within the autistic population with respect to emotional competence. Here we argue that, where observed, emotional impairments are due to alexithymia-a condition that frequently co-occurs with autism-rather than a feature of autism per se. Alexithymia is a condition characterized by a reduced ability to identify and describe one’s own emotion, but which results in reduced empathy and an impaired ability to recognize the emotions of others. We briefly review studies of emotion processing in alexithymia, and in autism, before describing a recent series of studies directly testing this ‘alexithymia hypothesis’. If found to be correct, the alexithymia hypothesis has wide-reaching implications for the study of autism, and how we might best support subgroups of autistic individuals with, and without, accompanying alexithymia. Finally, we note the presence of elevated rates of alexithymia, and inconsistent reports of emotional impairments, in eating disorders, schizophrenia, substance abuse, Parkinson’s Disease, multiple sclerosis and anxiety disorders. We speculate that examining the contribution of alexithymia to the emotional symptoms of these disorders may bear fruit in the same way that it is starting to do in autism. HubMed – eating

Eating Disorders
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