School Meals Participation and Weekday Dietary Quality Were Associated After Controlling for Weekend Eating Among U.S. School Children Aged 6 to 17 Years.

School Meals Participation and Weekday Dietary Quality Were Associated after Controlling for Weekend Eating among U.S. School Children Aged 6 to 17 Years.

J Nutr. 2013 Mar 13;
Hanson KL, Olson CM

Prior research has shown positive associations between participation in school meals and some dietary measures, but the evidence is equivocal. Few prior studies have used methodological approaches that address underlying differences in food preferences and health beliefs between school meals participants and nonparticipants, resulting in the potential for selection bias to influence results. This study estimated relationships among school meals participation and weekday energy intake and dietary quality, controlling for weekend dietary intake as a proxy for food preferences and health beliefs. Further, this paper explored how family income moderated these relationships. NHANES data (2003-2008) were analyzed for children aged 6-17 y with reliable dietary recalls for one weekday and one weekend day (n = 2376). Using multivariate linear regression models, we examined weekday-weekend differences in energy intake as a percentage of the estimated energy requirement (%EER) and differences in Healthy Eating Index-2005 (HEI) scores for breakfast and lunch and for the entire day. Overall, school meals participants and nonparticipants had equivalent %EERs and total HEI scores, but participants scored higher for milk and lower for saturated fat and sodium after adjustment for weekend eating. Family income moderated the relationship between school meals participation and HEI. Low-income children who ate school breakfast and lunch had significantly higher total HEI, and total grain, and meat and beans component scores. Conversely, higher income participants had significantly lower scores for total grains, whole grains, and saturated fat. Changes to the content of school meals may differentially affect weekday dietary intake of low-income and higher income participants. HubMed – eating

 

Meat consumption and diet quality and mortality in NHANES III.

Eur J Clin Nutr. 2013 Mar 13;
Kappeler R, Eichholzer M, Rohrmann S

Background/Objectives:There is growing evidence that meat consumption is associated with total and cause-specific mortality. Our objective was to evaluate the association of meat intake and the healthy eating index (HEI) with total mortality, cancer and cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality.Subjects/Methods:Analyses are based on 17?611 participants from Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III) (1986-2010). Meat intake was assessed using a food frequency questionnaire administrated at baseline. Adherence to the HEI was analyzed with a single 24-h dietary recall. Cox proportional hazards regression models were used to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) of mortality according to five categories of meat consumption and three categories of the HEI score.Results:During the follow-up period, 3683 deaths occurred, of which 1554 were due to CVD and 794 due to cancer. After multivariable adjustment, neither red and processed meat, nor white meat consumption were consistently associated with all-cause or cause-specific mortality. In men, white meat consumption tended to be inversely associated with total mortality (P for trend=0.02), but there was no such association among women. Significantly decreased mortality was observed in the top compared with the bottom third of the HEI score (HR=0.70, 95% CI 0.52-0.96). This association was only observed in men, but not in women.Conclusions:Meat consumption was not associated with mortality. A healthy diet according to HEI, however, was associated with a decreased total mortality in men, but not in women.European Journal of Clinical Nutrition advance online publication, 13 March 2013; doi:10.1038/ejcn.2013.59. HubMed – eating

 

Prevalence and energy intake from snacking in Brazil: analysis of the first nationwide individual survey.

Eur J Clin Nutr. 2013 Mar 13;
Duffey KJ, Pereira RA, Popkin BM

Background/Objectives:Snacking has increased globally. We examine snacking patterns and common snack foods in Brazil.Subjects/Methods:Data from the first of two non-consecutive food diaries from 34?003 individuals (aged ?10 years) in the first Brazillian nationally representative dietary survey (2008-2009) were used. Meals were defined as the largest (kcal) eating event reported during select times of the day (Breakfast, 0600-1000 hours; Lunch, 1200-1500 hours; Dinner, 1800-2100 hours); all other eating occasions were considered snacks. We estimate daily energy intake, percentage of persons consuming snacks, number of daily snacks and per capita and per consumer energy from snacks (kcal/day, kcal/snack and % of daily energy from snacks).Results:In all, 74% of Brazilians (?10 years) snacked, reporting an average 1.6 snacks/day. Also, 23% of the sample were heavy snackers (?3 snacks/day). Snacking accounted for 21% of daily energy intake in the full sample but 35.5% among heavy snackers. Compared with non-snackers (1548?kcal/day), light (1-2 snacks/day) and heavy snackers consumed more daily energy (1929 and 2334?kcal/day, respectively). Taking into account time of day, the largest percentage of persons reported afternoon/early evening snacking (1501-1759 hours, 47.7%). Sweetened coffee and tea, sweets and desserts, fruit, sugar-sweetened beverages, and high-calorie salgados (fried/baked dough with meat/cheese/vegetable) were the top five most commonly consumed snacks. Differences were observed by age groups. Trends in commercial sales were observed, especially for sugar-sweetened beverages.Conclusions:Many commonly consumed snack foods in Brazil are classified, in the US, as being high in solid fats and added sugars. The public health impact of snacking in Brazil requires further exploration.European Journal of Clinical Nutrition advance online publication, 13 March 2013; doi:10.1038/ejcn.2013.60. HubMed – eating

 

Increasing community capacity and decreasing prevalence of overweight and obesity in a community based intervention among Australian adolescents.

Prev Med. 2013 Feb 25;
Millar L, Robertson N, Allender S, Nichols M, Bennett C, Swinburn B

BACKGROUND: Community capacity building is a promising approach to reducing childhood obesity. The objective was to determine changes in capacity over a 3year intervention (2005-2008) in schools and whether greater increases in capacity were associated with greater decreases in overweight/obesity. METHODS: “It’s your Move!” (IYM) was an obesity prevention project, in 12 Australian secondary schools (5 intervention; 7 comparison), that aimed to increase community capacity to promote healthy eating and physical activity. Capacity was assessed pre/post intervention using the ‘Community Readiness to Change (RTC)’ tool. Comparisons from baseline to follow-up were tested using Wilcoxon Signed-Ranks and results plotted against changes (Newcombe’s paired differences) in prevalence of overweight/obesity (WHO standards). RESULTS: RTC increased in intervention schools (p=0.04) over time but not for comparison schools (p=0.50). The intervention group improved on 5 of 6 dimensions and the three intervention schools that increased three levels on the RTC scale each had significant reductions in overweight/obesity prevalence. CONCLUSION: There were marked increases in capacity in the intervention schools and those with greater increases had greater decreases in the prevalence of overweight/obesity. Community-based obesity prevention efforts should specifically target increasing community capacity as a proximal indicator of success. HubMed – eating

 


 

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