School-Based Health Center Intervention Improves Body Mass Index in Overweight and Obese Adolescents.

School-based health center intervention improves body mass index in overweight and obese adolescents.

J Obes. 2013; 2013: 575016
Kong AS, Sussman AL, Yahne C, Skipper BJ, Burge MR, Davis SM

Adolescents Committed to Improvement of Nutrition and Physical Activity (ACTION) was undertaken to determine feasibility of a school-based health center (SBHC) weight management program. Two urban New Mexico SBHCs were randomized to deliver ACTION or standard care. ACTION consisted of eight visits using motivational interviewing to improve eating and physical activity behavior. An educational nutrition and physical activity DVD for students and a clinician toolkit were created for use as menu of options. Standard care consisted of one visit with the SBHC provider who prescribed recommendations for healthy weight. Sixty nondiabetic overweight/obese adolescents were enrolled. Measures included BMI percentile, waist circumference, insulin resistance by homeostasis model assessment (HOMA-IR), blood pressure, triglycerides, and HDL-C levels. Pre- to postchanges for participants were compared between groups. Fifty-one students (mean age 15 years, 62% female, 75% Hispanic) completed pre- and postmeasures. ACTION students (n = 28) had improvements in BMI percentile (P = 0.04) and waist circumference (P = 0.04) as compared with students receiving standard care (n = 23). No differences were found between the two groups in blood pressure, HOMA-IR, triglycerides, and HDL-C. The ACTION SBHC weight management program was feasible and demonstrated improved outcomes in BMI percentile and waist circumference. HubMed – eating


Foods Eaten by the Sichuan Snub-Nosed Monkey (Rhinopithecus roxellana) in Shennongjia National Nature Reserve, China, in Relation to Nutritional Chemistry.

Am J Primatol. 2013 Apr 15;
Liu X, Stanford CB, Yang J, Yao H, Li Y

The diet of Rhinopithecus roxellana is characterized by lichens, which are available year-round and an uncommon food source for nonhuman primates, supplemented by seasonal plant foods. We present the first study of foods eaten by R. roxellana in relation to nutritional chemistry in Shennongjia National Nature Reserve, Hubei Province, China. We analyzed the nutrients (crude protein, crude fat, and water soluble carbohydrate [WSC]) and feeding deterrents (crude fiber, condensed tannin [CT], and total phenolic [TP]) of 111 parts from 53 plant species and of 6 lichen species. Results showed that lichens were a good choice for R. roxellana living in habitats with limited and seasonally available plant foods. They contained higher concentrations of WSC than foliage, fat concentrations equivalent to those in plant parts (except fruits/seeds), and lower concentrations of fiber than mature leaves, flowers, and fruits. Although lichens were lower in protein than plant parts (except fruits), the monkeys could likely meet their protein requirement by eating seasonal plant foods rich in protein, including foliage, flowers, buds, and seeds. The monkeys were not observed to select foliage higher in protein, but appeared to select mature leaves higher in WSC and lower in fiber. Fruits were a good source of WSC and fat, and seeds were a good source of fat. Neither CT nor TP content showed negative effects on the selection of mature leaves or lichens. Am. J. Primatol. 2013. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. HubMed – eating


Profiling disordered eating patterns and body mass index (BMI) in the English general population.

Soc Psychiatry Psychiatr Epidemiol. 2013 May; 48(5): 783-93
McBride O, McManus S, Thompson J, Palmer RL, Brugha T

Little national evidence exists on disordered eating patterns in the UK. This study examined the prevalence and nature of disordered eating patterns in the National Adult Psychiatric Morbidity Survey 2007.Responses to the screening tool for eating disorders (SCOFF) and body mass index (BMI) were analysed using latent class analysis (n = 7,001). Multinomial logistic regression explored the associations between latent classes and mental health comorbidities.The prevalence of possible eating disorders in England using the SCOFF was 6.3 %; this decreased to 1.6 % when accounting for the negative impact feelings about food had on the respondent’s life. Five latent classes were identified: classes 1 and 2 resembled known eating disorders (‘marginal anorexia’ relating to anorexia nervosa and ‘binge eaters’ relating to bulimia nervosa/binge eating disorder); class 3 consisted of people who were obese, but did not experience eating problems; class 4 was morbidly obese, with an elevated risk of anxiety disorders; class 5 was labelled as ‘normal eaters’, with a low probability of eating problems and a normal BMI.Adults assigned to eating disorder type classes are at increased risk for mental health comorbidities and poorer social functioning. Information presented herein on clustering of disordered eating patterns may help clinicians identify those men and women risk for an eating disorder. HubMed – eating


Risk factors for Toxoplasma gondii and immune status of pregnant women: Cause and effect?

Tunis Med. 2013 Mar; 91(3): 188-90
Fakhfakh N, Kallel K, Ennigro S, Kaouech E, Belhadj S, Chaker E

Background: Human infection with the protozoan parasite Toxoplasma gondii is found world-wide. The differences in prevalence across the countries may be ascribed to variations in hygiene and eating habits. aim: To identify preventable risk factors for Toxoplasma gondii infection in pregnancy through a transversal study achieved in the laboratory of Parasitology Mycology of Rabta including all pregnant women referred to the laboratory between March 2010 and February 2011 to serological testing for toxoplasmosis methods: The age, the stage of the current pregnancy and exposures to potential risk factors associated with Toxoplasma infection were collected by a questionnaire. An analysis with SPSS and chi-square was used to analyse exposure frequencies for each risk factor variable. results: A total of 2351 women were included. The median age of the pregnany women was 29.4 years (range, 16 – 48 years). In all, 47.7% of them were seropositive. Seropositivity for toxoplasmosis was significantly associated with eating undercooked meat (p = 0.002) and eating miswashed vegetables (p = 0.003). However, the other factors (contact with cats, cleaning the cat litter box, washing the hands after preparation of raw meat, contact with the ground) were found to be independently associated with seropositivity toxoplasmosis. Conclusion: In Tunisia, there is still no prevention program toxoplasmosis well structured. Health education on avoidance of maternal infection is an important aspect of any program for prevention of congenital toxoplasmosis. HubMed – eating